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 Maka is the Cente OF the Eearth

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PostSubject: Maka is the Cente OF the Eearth   Sat May 10, 2008 6:34 pm

Dr. Salih Muhammad Awadh

Iraq , Baghdad university , faculty of science , Geology Dept

Translated by : Magdy Abd Al-Shafy


[size=12]The layers of the earth [/size]

[size=12]In this short study , when contemplating about the miracles of God in this universe , I will show the miracles in the creation of the earth though many people go unmindful of them . God says in the Holy Quran what means " And in the earth are portents for those whose faith is sure " (Al-Zaryat :20) According to seismology , the earth , from the surface to its center , is composed of three layers and these with the secondary ones form seven layers ( figure 1) , God refers to this wel-established fact in the Holy Quran , God says in the Holy Quran in this regard what means ( Allah it is who hath created seven heavens, and of the earth the like thereof. The commandment cometh down among them slowly, that ye may know that Allah is Able to do all things, and that Allah surroundeth all things in knowledge ." (56:12) [/size]

[size=12]These layers are: [/size]

[size=12]1-The earth Crust [/size]

[size=12] It the solid part that we live on , it varies in thickness , the maximum thickness is under the mountain while thickness is
relatively smaller under oceans ; the earth crust can be scientifically categorized into two parts :
[/size]


[size=12](a) The continental crust : [/size]

[size=12]Itis a rocky mass varying in thickness , the rate of thickness varies between 30Km-40Km in the continental areas while it reaches 70km under mountains [/size]

[size=12](b)The oceanic layer : it is a rocky structure encompassing the earth under oceans and the crust ; it is not harmonious structure with relatively thickness of 6km [/size]

[size=12]The mantle : it is higher in dense than all the masses of the crust , it is complex in structure ; because of the high temperature and pressure ,
it is semi-rigid , it is the source of magma , it can be divided into
three parts
[/siz

[size=12] (a)The upper mantle which goes deep to a depth of 400km under the crust . [/size]

[12] (b) The transformation zone which extends from 400km to 1000km [/size]

The lower mantle which extends from 1000 km to 2900km

[size12
]3-The core of the earth , it is mainly composed of iron and Nickel and it can be divided into layers [/size]

a) The outer core which is in a liquid state , it extends from a depth of 2900km to 5080km

(b) The interior core : it is a rigid substance and it extends from a depth of

5080 to 6371 , it is believed that the internal core is the centre of the earth .

The
rock layer of the earth on which we live has never been one mass but it
is composed of what scientifically known as ( plates ) . God refers to
this fact in the Holy Quran , ( And in the Earth are neighboring
tracts, vineyards and ploughed lands, and date palms, like and unlike,
which are watered with one water. And We have made some of them to
excel others in fruit. Lo! herein verily are portents for people who
have sense . ) (13-4)


These
adjacent plates , that are mentioned in the Holy Quran , are that which
are scientifically approved ( figure 2) , this is , now , the most
well-established and the most scientifically well-supported fact , it
is taught everywhere in the world universities , Geology department .
The most well-known earth plates are :


1. Eurasian plate covering Asia and Europe

2.African plate covering Africa

3.The Arabian plate

4.Antarctic plate covering Antarctic

5. Australian plate, covering Australia (fused with Indian plate between 50 and 55 million years ago)

6. North American Plate covering North America and north-east Siberia

7. South American plate covering South America

8. Pacific Plate covering the Pacific Plate

9. The Indian Plate

10. The Caribbean plate

11. The Philippine plate

12. Scotia


Figure (1) The scientifically-known plates nowadays ( mentioned in the Holy Quran as the neighboring plates


The plates motion

the
earth plates relatively moves slowly and constantly , it can't be seen
directly but can be recoded with highly advanced technology ; (1M a
year was reported by this technology as regard the movement of one of
these plates)and can be experienced during earthquakes .


There are three main kinds of motions as regard the plate movement :

Convergent
movement , divergent movement and transform movement, in the divergent
movement , two adjacent plate move in the opposite directions moving
away from each other and this often happens in mid-floor of seas and
oceans causing dint or protuberance and this result in the gushing out
of the magma under sea water , being molten and with high pressure , it
cause large mass of water to evaporate ; the Holy Quran has referred
to this scientific fact in the following verse (And by the sea set on fire ) (81:6)


Ocean
floor rift typifies a certain kind of earthquakes followed by magma
out-break . This magma is composed of complex substance higher in
density than the rocks of the crust , scientific studies have proved
that density of the upper mantle is much higher in density than that of
the earth crust (0.4gramme/ cm3 ) , the more we go down , the more
differences in density . The Holy Quran refers to this scientific fact ( When Earth is shaken with her (final) earthquake and Earth yieldeth up her burdens(99:1-2)


These
magma forms what is now known as the volcanic mountains which are
termed as mid-ocean ridges, which rise over the oceans and seas water
forming islands , the earthquake and volcanoes co-occurrence can be
illustrated in (figure -3) the convergence movement means that two
adjacent plate approach each other with result that they collide with
each other , as they go on colliding ,one of them or both slidedown as
far as 100Km with the result that they have their structure changed
turning into semi-molten state because of the high temperature - this
process typifies the corroding



figure
2) the locations where the last recorded quakes took place in the last
century dotted in black , these co-occur the locations of opening the
mid-oceans (oceans colored blue) and also represent the locations of
crust plates collisions ( colored green) taken from (Spencer ,2003)


(Of
the ends of the plates or the ends of the earth as the Holy Quran
depicts , this fact is mentioned in the Holy Quran in the following two
Holy verses . God says in the Holy Quran in this regard what means (
See they not how We visit the land, reducing it of its outlying parts?
(When) Allah doometh there is none that can postpone His doom, and He
is swift at reckoning. "
(13:41)


Also God says also in the Holy Quran what means "Nay,
but We gave these and their fathers ease until life grew long for them.
See they not how we visit the land, reducing it of its outlying parts?
Can they then be the victors? "
(21:44)


A
plate might slide over the other forming structural mountains , these
moves with the plates; these means that these mountains moves and that
what the Holy Quran refers to , God says in the Holy Quran what means ( And when the hills are moved) (81:3)
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