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 (Taqdir) Destiny and Fate (All Fatwas on Human being life)

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Muwahhed
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PostSubject: (Taqdir) Destiny and Fate (All Fatwas on Human being life)   Sun Jan 20, 2008 12:26 pm

Salam Brothers and sisters,
As we faced many questiones asking (about Taqdir) why everything is writen from the beginning and now a days human being does, why Allah Punishes him/her for bad actions, so I searched and found out a lot of questios from the great scholars and put for you b/s.
If there raised any more questions for you, let me know.




What does
Islam say about destiny and fate?

Question:
how does islam view destiny and fate ?


Answer:

Praise be to Allaah.

Belief in destiny and fate is one of the basic beliefs of Islam. It means that Allaah is the Knower of all things and the Creator of all things;
nothing exists outside of His will and decree. He wrote down all things with Him in al-Lawh
al-Mahfooz
(the Preserved Tablet), and this was fifty thousand years before He created
the universe. Everything in the universe, every creature and the things it does, is the
creation of Allaah. Whatever He wills happens, and whatever He does not will does not
happen. If something happens to a person, it could not have missed him, and if something
does not happen to him, it could not have happened to him. A person is not forced to obey
or disobey Allaah – he has free will as befits his state, but it is subject to the
will of the Creator. And Allaah knows best..



Islam Q&A
Sheikh Muhammed Salih Al-Munajjid

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PostSubject: Re: (Taqdir) Destiny and Fate (All Fatwas on Human being life)   Sun Jan 20, 2008 12:28 pm

Are
Muslims fatalists?

Question:
Are
Muslims fatalists?


Answer:

Praise be to Allaah.


Fatalists are those who think that a person has no choice in what he does and is compelled to do it, and that his actions are like the actions of a tree which is moved by the wind. Their opposites are those who think that a person creates or initiates his own deeds. The Ahl al-Sunnah wa’l-Jamaa’ah (Sunni Muslims who follow the way of the Prophet
` (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him)) follow a middle path between these two extremes and believe that man has a free will but that this will is subject to the Will of Allaah. A person does not initiate his own deeds, neither is he compelled to do what he does; he can decide for himself, within the framework of the Will of Allaah. And Allaah knows best.



Islam Q&A
Sheikh Muhammed Salih Al-Munajjid


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PostSubject: Re: (Taqdir) Destiny and Fate (All Fatwas on Human being life)   Sun Jan 20, 2008 12:35 pm

Is man’s fate pre-destined or does he have freedom of will?

Question:
Is our fate completely pre-destined? Some say we have a choice of which path to choose but what you will find at the end of the path has been chosen for you by Allah. I have also read that qadar was perhaps created by Jahm b. Safwan, not Allah.

Where can I find the information in the Quran and if there is a set destiny how much of it is chosen by God? Is there really a set day on which I will have birth and another for earthly death, for whom I will marry?
What if I did meet the man I am supposed to marry but I somehow choose the wrong path (so I may believe) only to realize I did wrong. Will he come in my path again or have I altered my destiny so that my punishment may be that I can not have this person in my life?.

Answer:
Praise be to Allaah.

Belief in al-qadar (the divine will and decree) is one of the pillars of faith, because the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said, when he answered Jibreel’s question about faith: “(It means) believing in Allaah, His angels, His Books, His Messengers and the Last Day, and to believe in al-qadar (the divine decree) both good and bad.”

What is meant by al-qadar is that Allaah has decreed all things from eternity and knows that they will happen at times that are known to
Him, and in specific ways, and that He has written that and willed it, and they happen according to what He has decreed. [al-Qada’ wa’l-Qadar by Dr ‘Abd al-Rahmaan al-Mahmoud, p. 39].


Belief in al-qadar is based on four things:

1 – Knowledge, i.e., that Allaah knows what His creation will do, by virtue of His eternal knowledge.

2 – Writing, i.e., that Allaah has written the destiny of all creatures in al-Lawh al-Mahfooz.

3 – Will, i.e., that what Allaah wills happens and what He does not will does not happen. There is no movement in the heavens or on earth but it happens by His will.

4 – Creation and formation, i.e., that Allaah is the Creator of all
things, including the actions of His slaves. They do their actions in a real sense, and He is the Creator of them and of their actions.


Whoever believes in these four believes in al-qadar.

The Qur’aan affirms these things in numerous verses, such as the verses in which He says (interpretation of the meaning):

“And with Him are the keys of the Ghayb (all that is hidden), none knows them but He. And He knows whatever there is in the land and in the sea; not a leaf falls, but He knows it. There is not a grain in the darkness
of the earth nor anything fresh or dry, but is written in a Clear Record”

[al-An’aam 6:59]

“No calamity befalls on the earth or in yourselves but it is inscribed in the Book of Decrees (Al‑Lawh Al‑Mahfooz) before We bring it into existence. Verily, that is easy for Allaah”
[al-Hadeed 57:22]


“And you cannot will unless (it be) that Allaah wills the Lord of the ‘Aalameen (mankind, jinn and all that exists)”
[al-Takweer 81:29]

“Verily, We have created all things with Qadar (Divine Preordainments of all things before their creation as written in the Book of Decrees Al‑Lawh Al‑Mahfooz)”
[al-Qamar 54:49]

Muslim (2653) narrated that ‘Abd-Allaah ibn ‘Amr ibn al-‘Aas said: I heard the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) say: “Allaah wrote down the decrees of creation fifty thousand years before He created the heavens and the earth.” He said: “And His Throne was upon the water.”

Hence it should be clear to you that the view that al-qadar was invented by al-Jahm ibn Safwaan is a view that has no sound basis. Al-qadar was not created, rather creation comes under the heading of belief in al-qadar.
Al-Jahm went to extremes in affirming the divine will and decree, and claimed that people are compelled to do what they do and have no choice. This is a false view.


The belief of Ahl al-Sunnah wa'l-Jamaa'ah is that a person has freedom of will, and hence he will be rewarded or punished. But his will is
subject to the will of Allaah, and nothing can take place in the universe that is not willed by Allaah.


What some people say, that we have the choice to follow whatever path we want but at the end of this path you will find what Allaah has decreed for you, is a correct view. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“Verily, We showed him the way, whether he be grateful or
ungrateful”

[al-Insaan 76:3]

“And shown him the two ways (good and evil)?”
[al-Balad 90:10]

“And say: “The truth is from your Lord.”
Then whosoever wills, let him believe; and whosoever wills, let him disbelieve”

[al-Kahf 18:29]

Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allaah have mercy on him) said, explaining the view of Ahl al-Sunnah with regard to man’s deeds:

People act in a real sense, and Allaah is the Creator of their actions. A person may be a believer or a kaafir, righteous or immoral, he may pray and fast. People have control over their actions, and they have their own will, and Allaah is the Creator of their control and will, as Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“To whomsoever among you who wills to walk straight.

And you cannot will unless (it be) that Allaah wills
the Lord of the ‘Aalameen (mankind, jinn and all that exists)”

[al-Takweer 81:28-29]

al-Waasitiyyah ma’a Sharh Harraas, p. 65.

Marriage is one of the things that Allaah has decreed. The person whom you will marry is known to Allaah: He knows who he is, when he was born, where and when he will die, how he will be towards you, and other details.
All of that is known to Allaah and He has written it in al-Lawh al-Mahfooz (the Book of Decrees), and it will inevitably come to pass as Allaah has decreed.


If Allaah has decreed that you will marry one person, but you choose someone else, then no matter how long it takes, you will marry that
person. But your marriage to someone else is also decreed, because there is nothing that is not decreed by Allaah. It may be decreed for a woman to marry So and so the son of So and so, and he comes to propose marriage but she refuses him, and marries someone else, then he (the second man) dies or divorces her, then she accepts the first one. All of that is decreed, and it is decreed for her to marry So and so the son of So and so after initially refusing him and after some experience or trials etc.


It may be decreed for a woman that a righteous man will propose marriage to her, but she will refuse him and he will never come back to her, and she will marry and live with someone else who is more or less righteous, according what Allaah has decreed.

Because man does not know what is decreed for him, what he must do is to adhere to sharee’ah and abide by its commands and prohibitions, and to seek the help of Allaah and pray to Him for guidance (istikhaarah) concerning all his affairs, whilst implementing the means, one of the most important of which is consulting sincere people who have relevant experience.

If a righteous man proposes marriage to a woman, she should pray to Allaah for guidance (istikhaarah) and agree to marry him. If things then go smoothly, this is an indication that what is good for her is to marry
him.


In conclusion, man should study the sharee’ah of Allaah and follow the commands of Allaah even if he feels reluctant, and avoid what Allaah
has forbidden even if he is attached to it. All goodness is to be found in obeying sharee’ah. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):


“Jihaad(holy fighting in Allaah’s Cause) is ordained for you (Muslims) though you dislike it, and it may be that you dislike a thing which is good for you and that you like a thing which is bad for you. Allaah knows but you do not know”
[al-Baqarah 2:216]

He should not look at al-qadar as an excuse to ignore commands and do forbidden things, rather he should look at it in a way that will make
him content with whatever painful experiences happen to him.


And Allaah knows best.

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PostSubject: Re: (Taqdir) Destiny and Fate (All Fatwas on Human being life)   Sun Jan 20, 2008 12:39 pm

Belief in al-Qadaa’ wa’l-Qadar (Divine will and decree)

Question:
What is the status of sabr (patience) in Islam? What should the Muslim bear with patience?


Answer:

Praise be to Allaah.

Belief in al-Qadaa’ wa’l-Qadar (Divine will and decree) is one of the pillars of faith. The Muslim’s faith is not complete unless he knows that whatever befalls him could not have missed him, and whatever misses him could not have befallen him.
Everything is subject to the will and decree of Allaah, as Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“Verily, We have created all things with Qadar (Divine Preordainments of all things before their creation as written in the Book of Decrees Al Lawh Al Mahfooz). [al-Qamar 54:49]

The position of patience in relation to faith is like that of the head in relation to the body. Patience is a noble attribute with good consequences. Those who are patient will have an unlimited reward, as Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“Only those who are patient shall receive their reward in full, without reckoning” [al-Zumar 39:10]

All the disasters and tribulations that happen on earth, or happen to the individual, or to his wealth or family, etc., were known to Allaah before they happened, He has written them in al-Lawh al-Mahfooz (the Preserved Tablet) as He says (interpretation of the meaning):

“No calamity befalls on the earth or in yourselves but it is inscribed in the Book of Decrees (Al Lawh Al Mahfooz) before We bring it into existence. Verily, that is easy for Allaah” [al-Hadeed 57:22]

No matter what disasters befall a person, it is good for him, whether he knows that or not, because Allaah does not decree anything but it is good, as He says (interpretation of the meaning):

“Say: ‘Nothing shall ever happen to us except what Allaah has ordained for us. He is our Mawlaa (Lord, Helper and Protector).’ And in Allaah let the believers put their trust”[al-Tawbah 9:51]

Every disaster that happens, happens by Allaah’s leave. If He had not willed it, it would not have happened, but Allaah permitted it to happen and decreed it, and so it happened. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“No calamity befalls, but by the Leave [i.e. Decision and Qadar (Divine Preordainments)] of Allaah, and whosoever believes in Allaah, He guides his heart [to the true Faith with certainty, i.e. what has befallen him was already written for him by Allaah from the Qadar (Divine Preordainments)]. And Allaah is the All-Knower of everything”[al-Taghaabun 64:11]

Once a person knows that all calamities happen by the will and decree of Allaah, then he has to believe and submit and be patient. The reward for patience is Paradise, as Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“And their recompense shall be Paradise, and silken garments, because they were patient”[al-Insaan 76:12]
The call to Allaah (da’wah) is a great mission, and the one who undertakes it is exposed to a great deal of harm and calamities.
Hence Allaah enjoined patience upon His Messenger and other Prophets:

“Therefore be patient (O Muhammad) as did the Messengers of strong will” [al-Ahqaaf 46:35 – interpretation of the meaning]

Allaah has guided the believers, if some matter worries them or some calamity befalls them to seek help with patience and prayer, so that Allaah will relieve their distress and give them a way out:

“O you who believe! Seek help in patience and As-Salaah (the prayer). Truly, Allaah is with As-Saabiroon (the patient)”
[al-Baqarah 2:153 – interpretation of the meaning]


The believer must bear with patience that which Allaah has decreed, and be patient in obeying Allaah, and be patient in keeping away from sin. Whoever is patient, Allaah will give him an immeasurable reward on the Day of Resurrection, as Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“Only those who are patient shall receive their reward in full, without reckoning” [al-Zumar 39:10]

The believer in particular is rewarded in both good times and bad. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “How wonderful is the affair of the believer, for all his affairs are good, and that is
for no one except the believer. If something good happens to him, he gives thanks, and that is good for him, and if something bad happens to him, he bears it with patience and that is good for him.” (Narrated by Muslim, no. 2999)

Allaah has taught us what we should say when calamity strikes, and has stated that those who are patient will have an honourable position with their Lord. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“… but give glad tidings to As Saabiroon (the patient).

Who, when afflicted with calamity, say: ‘Truly, to Allaah we belong and truly, to Him we shall return’”[al-Baqarah 2:155-156]


From Usool al-Deen al-Islami by Shaykh Muhammad ibn Ibraaheem al-Tuwayjri

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PostSubject: Re: (Taqdir) Destiny and Fate (All Fatwas on Human being life)   Sun Jan 20, 2008 12:44 pm

Why do people die of hunger if their provision
has been decreed by Allaah?

Question:
If Allah has ordained the "rizk" for everyone then why do people die of starvation.

Answer:

Praise be to Allaah.

Allaah is al-Razzaaq (the Provider) and the best of those who give provision. “And no moving (living) creature is there on earth but its provision is due from Allaah” [Hood 11:6 – interpretation of the meaning]. The rizq (provision) of Allaah will not be brought by the carefulness of the
miser, nor will it be prevented by the hostility of one who does not want it to come to another. It is part of the Wisdom of Allaah that He differentiates between His slaves in their provision just as He differentiates between them in their physical creation and their attitudes. So He gives in abundance to whomever He wills and gives little to whomever He wills. He may give plenty to some people and little to others. He is the One Who guarantees the provision of His slaves according to His prior knowledge and decree.
Allaah knows and decrees that some of His slaves will be given plenty and some will be given little; He has reasons for that that are beyond our comprehension. In His wisdom, He gives plenty or gives little as a test for His slaves, testing them with blessings or with calamities, as He says (interpretation of the meaning):

“and We shall make a trial of you with evil and with good” [al-Anbiya’ 21:35]

Allâh says (interpretation of the meaning):

“But when He tries him be straitening his means of life, he says: ‘My Lord has humiliated me!” [al-Fajr 89:16]

But then Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): “Nay!”
[al-Fajr 89:16], meaning, it is not as he thinks; Allaah blesses whoever he wills and makes things difficult for whomever He wills, and this is a test, not a sign of honour or humiliation. By means of this test, it becomes apparent who is grateful and patient, and who is the opposite. And Allaah is the Knower of all things.


this response was written for us by our Shaykh ‘Abd al-Rahmaan al-Barraak.

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PostSubject: Re: (Taqdir) Destiny and Fate (All Fatwas on Human being life)   Sun Jan 20, 2008 12:47 pm

The wisdom behind the creation of dangerous animals

Question:
What is The wisdom behind the creation of dangerous animals ?

Answer:

Praise be to Allaah.

There are two aspects to the answer to this question: general and specific. The general answer is that the Muslim believes that Allaah is All-Wise and All-Knowing, and He does not create anything in vain; all of His actions are based on Wisdom. If the wisdom behind any of His actions is hidden from the believer, then he should still adhere to this principle, and not think of his Lord in bad terms.

The specific answer is that the wisdom behind the creation of these things is to manifest the perfect nature of Allaah’s creation and control of all things. Even though the created things are so many, He provides for them all. He also tests people by means of these (dangerous creatures), rewards those who are afflicted by them and makes manifest the bravery of those who kill them. By creating them, He tests His slaves’ faith and certainty: the believer accepts the matter and submits, whilst the doubter says, “What is the point of Allaah creating this?!” He also demonstrates the weakness and incapability of man, whereby he suffers pain and sickness because of a creature which is far smaller than he is. One of the scholars was asked about the wisdom behind the creation of flies. He said, so that Allaah may humiliate the noses of the tyrants with them. Because of the existence of harmful creatures, it becomes apparent how great is the blessing in the creation of beneficial things, as it is said that contrast with the opposite demonstrates the nature of things. The study of medicine has demonstrated that many beneficial drugs are derived from the venom of snakes and the like. Glory be to the One Who has created benefits in things that to all outward appearances are harmful. Moreover, many of these dangerous animals are food for other creatures which are beneficial, and this forms the ecological cycle in the environments where Allaah has created them.

But the Muslim has to believe that everything that Allaah does is good, and that there is no pure evil in what He creates. In everything that He creates there has to be some aspect of good, even if it is hidden from us, as is the case with the creation of Iblees, who is the head of evil. But there is wisdom and a purpose behind his creation, for Allaah tests His creatures by means of him, to distinguish the obedient from the disobedient, those who strive from those who are negligent, the people of Paradise from the people of Hell.

We ask Allaah to bless us with strength of faith and understanding of our religion. May Allaah bless our Prophet Muhammad and grant him peace.


Islam Q&A
Sheikh Muhammed Salih Al-Munajjid

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PostSubject: Re: (Taqdir) Destiny and Fate (All Fatwas on Human being life)   Sun Jan 20, 2008 12:48 pm

Is it permissible to ask Allaah to change His decree?

Question:
How
correct is this phrase which some people say in their du’aa’ – “O
Allaah, I do not ask You to change Your decree but I do ask for Your
help when it comes to pass”?


Answer:

Praise be to Allaah.

This du’aa’ is recited by many people, but it is not an appropriate du’aa’, because it has been prescribed for us to ask Allaah to change His decree if there is something bad in it.

Hence Imaam al-Bukhaari (may Allaah have mercy on him) entitled a chapter in his Saheeh “Whoever seeks refuge with Allaah from having an evil end to this worldly life and from having a bad fate, and the aayah (interpretation of the meaning): ‘Say: I seek refuge with (Allaah) the Lord of the daybreak, from the evil of what He has created’ [al-Falaq 113:1-2].” Then he quoted the words of the Prophet (peace and blessings of
Allaah be upon him): “Seek refuge with Allaah from the difficulties of severe calamities, from having a bad end and bad fate.” (al-Bukhaari, 7/215, Kitaab al-Qadar).


al-Eemaan bi’l-Qadaa’ wa’l-Qadar by Muhammad ibn Ibraaheem al-Hamad, p. 147

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PostSubject: Re: (Taqdir) Destiny and Fate (All Fatwas on Human being life)   Sun Jan 20, 2008 12:51 pm

Should
we try to save a sick person or leave him to his fate?

Question:
Allah knows all, even events that have not yet occured. However what is the Islamic view of destiny or predestination. Is a man free to be the master of his fate or is "something written" for example a person may be dying, some will say his death is the wish of Allah and others will try to save the dying man. Is it written or can a man write his fate himself?


Answer:

Praise be to Allaah.

Everything is written and decreed, as Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“We have neglected nothing in the Book” (al-An’aam 6:3

“And everything they have done is noted in (their) Records (of
deeds).” (al-Qamar 54:52)


And in the Saheeh Hadeeth:

“The first thing which Allaah created was the Pen. He said to it:
‘Write!’ It said, ‘O Lord, what should I write?’ He said: ‘Write what is to happen until the Day of Resurrection.’”


According to another hadeeth:

“Allaah decreed everything for His creation fifty thousand years before He created the heavens and the earth.”

These decrees are hidden from us and we do not know them. It is not permissible for us to rely on this and neglect to strive and take all necessary means.
There is no contradiction between the two ideas. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said:


“O slaves of Allaah, seek treatment but do not seek treatment in haraam things, for Allaah has not sent down any disease without also sending down the cure.”

And he (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) also said:

“Strive, and that for which each person was created will be made easy for him.”

We do not know what has been decreed until after the fact. Allaah has given us free will and freedom of choice, but we do not move beyond the framework of the will and decree of Allaah. To sum up, there is no contradiction between trying to save a person from death and the idea that Allaah decrees all things, which we do not know until after they happen. And Allaah knows best.


Sheikh Muhammed Salih Al-Munajjid


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PostSubject: Re: (Taqdir) Destiny and Fate (All Fatwas on Human being life)   Sun Jan 20, 2008 12:57 pm

Her brother committed suicide and she is asking serious questions about the will of

Question:
My younger brother died by hanging himself. He was only 25 yrs.old. The problem was a small tiff between my mother and himself. We are all deeply shocked and very much grieved. There are so many questions that I would like to ask you regarding this situation. Firstly, why did Allah choose this kind of death for my brother. Secondly, my father is 65 yrs old and he is very pious and my mother is extremely kind and gentle. Why did Allah show this day in their lives? Thirdly, how can we help him (my brother) who is no more? How can we see him in jannat? Can we convey our salam to him? Will our salam reach him?

Also, after we did autopsy we found out that his death was not because of strangulation but because his spinal cord broke. Actually what happened was, there was a swing made out of a cloth for my kid in the room. My brother he took a stool which was nearby and tied it around his neck saying i will take my life. My mother was in the same room, praying. We feel it was not suicide, maybe it was his anger which made him do this.

His friends tell us that he was not the kind to commit suicide. In fact he used to advice his friends against it if they mentioned it.

His funeral was also good and his face did not look like he was suffering or anything. It looked like he was sleeping and we just had to wake him up. Does this indicate Please reply to this as we are very troubled by this sudden demise.


Answer:
Praise be to Allaah.

In dealing with these questions we must note three things, which are:

1 – Everything happens by the will and decree of Allaah.
Everything that happens in this universe, good or bad, happens by the decree of Allaah, under His control and by His will, for there is no lord except Him and no controller besides Him.


2 – We must believe that He is wise in all that He decrees, for His is the utmost wisdom in all that happens in this universe, whether we understand that or not. Indeed, much of Allaah’s wisdom cannot be comprehended by the minds of His slaves. So we must submit to Allaah, by
believing that His wisdom is perfect. It is not permissible for us to object to Him, whether that means objecting to His laws or to His decrees.


3 – Suicide is a major sin and a bad end. The one who kills himself in order to escape calamities or poverty or the results of distress or anger has, by doing that, exposed himself to the punishment of Allaah. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“… And do not kill yourselves (nor kill one another). Surely, Allaah is Most Merciful to you.

And whoever commits that through aggression and injustice, We shall cast him into the Fire, and that is easy for Allaah”
[al-Nisa’ 4:29]

And it was narrated in al-Saheehayn that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Whoever kills himself with a piece of iron, that iron will be in his hand and he will be stabbing himself in the stomach with it in Hell for ever and ever. Whoever kills himself with poison, that poison will be in his hand and he will be drinking it in Hell…”

Whatever happened in this case, we must refer the matter to Allaah. What appears to be the case is that what happened was suicide, because he hung himself, i.e., he tied a rope around his neck and strangled himself. So either he committed suicide or he wanted to commit suicide.And
Allaah knows best.


As for the righteousness of the parents, this does not mean that Allaah will not test them with some calamities, so as to show their patience and so as to erase thereby their sins. For the believer’s whole affair is good: if something good happens to him he gives thanks for it, and that is good for him, and if something bad happens to him, he bears it with patience, and that is good for him, and this applies only to the believer. So being tested with calamities does not mean that the believer is insignificant before Allaah if he is righteous and obeys Allaah. For belief in Allaah, obeying Him and fearing Him are the means that lead to one being honoured by Allaah, and kufr, immorality and disobedience are the means that lead to one being regarded as worthless by Allaah. Whoever is tested with some calamity and bears that with patience, that will raise him in status.
Calamities are of different kinds, it may be a sickness, or loss of wealth, or loss of a loved one such as a son, brother, father, husband or wife. Allaah tests His slaves with ease and with calamities, with good and bad, as Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):


“and We shall make a trial of you with evil and with good. And to Us you will be returned”[al-Anbiya’ 21:35]

If the suicide stemmed from ignorance and the person was righteous and obeyed Allaah, and prayed regularly, then there is the hope that Allaah may forgive him, for He is the Most Merciful of those who show mercy. However, if he knew of the ruling on suicide, but he resorted to that in order to get rid of a problem from which he was suffering, then there is the danger that he is included in the warning of the punishment narrated in the hadeeth. But nevertheless he was still a believer in Allaah and His Messenger and a follower of Tawheed, not a mushrik, so he is subject to the will of Allaah. If Allaah wills He will forgive him, and if He wills he will punish him, but even if He punishes him He will eventually bring him forth from the Fire, because Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“Verily, Allaah forgives not that partners should be set up with Him (in worship), but He forgives except that (anything else) to whom He wills”[al-Nisa’ 4:48]

And the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Everyone who says Laa ilaaha ill-Allaah (there is no god except Allaah) and has an atom’s-weight of faith in his heart will be brought forth from the Fire.”

With regard to his washing and preparation for burial, and his good appearance, that may indeed be a sign that his situation is good, that the consequences will be good for him and that he is excused and forgiven by his Lord. But we cannot be certain about any of these things, although these signs may give us hope. If the one who committed suicide was a Muslim, a follower of Tawheed and one who prayed regularly, then we can
show kindness towards him by praying for forgiveness for him and asking Allaah to forgive him his sins, and to forgive him for whatever he did to himself that ended up in suicide.


With regard to what is said in the question criticizing the way which Allaah chose for him to die, this is a kind of objecting to the decree of Allaah. Allaah is the One Who decrees; He is the Creator of all things, and all things are subject to His decree. He is the Most Wise, the All-Knowing, but whatever action is done that goes against His law cannot be justified by saying that this is the decree of Allaah. Whatever happens in
the universe of such events does not mean that it is permissible to object to the decree of Allaah, rather we are obliged to believe in the Divine decree and in the Wisdom of the Lord, may He be glorified and exalted.


Shaykh ‘Abd al-Rahmaan al-Barraak.


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PostSubject: Re: (Taqdir) Destiny and Fate (All Fatwas on Human being life)   Sun Jan 20, 2008 1:03 pm

Kinds of speech that we must refrain from

Question:
I know theres certain types of speech which we must refrain from. like the speech the Prophet sallalaho alayhe wasalam stayed away from please could you send that to me.


Answer:
Praise be to Allaah.

The Muslim has to control his tongue and not speak unless he says something good.

Al-Bukhaari (6018) and Muslim (47) narrated from Abu Hurayrah that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Whoever believes in Allaah and the Last Day, let him speak good or else keep silent…”


Al-Nawawi (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: “If he wants to speak, then if what he wants to say is good and he is confident that he will be rewarded for it, whether it is obligatory or praiseworthy, then let him
speak, but if it does not seem to him that it is good and he will be rewarded for it, then let him refrain from speaking, whether he thinks it is haraam or makrooh or permissible. Based on this, it is recommended to refrain from saying permissible words and we are enjoined to avoid that, lest that lead us into something that is haraam or makrooh, which is what happens in many cases or in most cases.
Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):


‘Not a word does he (or she) utter but there is a watcher by him ready (to record it)’
[Qaaf 50:18]

Imam al-Shaafa’i understood the hadeeth to mean that if a person wants to say something, he should think about it: if it seems to him that it
will not do any harm, then he should speak, but if he thinks that it will do some harm or he thinks that this is most likely, then he should refrain from speaking.”


The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) commanded us to control our tongues in more than one hadeeth, such as that narrated by al-Tirmidhi (2406) from ‘Uqbah ibn ‘Aamir who said: “I said, ‘O Messenger of Allaah, what is salvation?’ He said, ‘Control your tongue, keep to your house and weep over your sin.’” Classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh al-Targheeb, 3331.

Al-Tirmidhi (2616) also narrated that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said to Mu’aadh, after teaching him some of the laws of Islam, “Shall I not tell you what is the foundation of all that?” I [Mu’aadh] said: “Of course, O Prophet of Allaah.” He took hold of his tongue and said, “Control this.” I said, “O Prophet of Allaah, will we be held responsible for what we say with it?” He said, “May your mother be bereft of you, O Mu’aadh! Will the people be thrown into Hell on their faces or on their noses for anything other than the harvest of their tongues?”

Classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh al-Tirmidhi, 2110.

The hadeeth enjoins refraining from indulging in specific things, because that is something that is of no benefit to a person, and indeed it may cause him a great deal of harm in his spiritual and worldly affairs.

It was narrated from Ibn Mas’ood that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “If my companions are mentioned, then keep quiet; if the stars are mentioned, then keep quiet; and if the divine decree is mentioned, then keep quiet.” (Narrated by al-Tabaraani in al-Kabeer, 2/96. Classed as saheeh by Shaykh al-Albaani in al-Silsilah al-Saheehah, 34).

This hadeeth indicates that it is not permissible for a person to speak badly of the companions of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), and that he should keep quiet about the disputes that occurred among them, because speaking badly of them or criticizing them implies that one is rejecting what Allaah said about them in the Qur’aan, where He praised them by saying (interpretation of the meaning):

“And the foremost to embrace Islam of the Muhaajiroon and the Ansaar and also those who followed them exactly (in Faith). Allaah is well-pleased with them as they are well-pleased with Him. He has prepared for them Gardens under which rivers flow (Paradise), to dwell therein forever.
That is the supreme success”

[al-Tawbah 9:100]

And Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah. And those who are with him are severe against disbelievers, and merciful among themselves. You see them bowing and falling down prostrate (in prayer), seeking Bounty from Allaah and (His) Good Pleasure. The mark of them (i.e. of their Faith)
is on their faces (foreheads) from the traces of prostration (during prayers)”

[al-Fath 48:29]

This is how Allaah has described them in His Book, so no doubt they are of just character and are the best and greatest of mankind. So no one hates them but a hypocrite and no one loves them but a believer.
Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allaah have mercy on him) said:

“One of the basic principles of Ahl al-Sunnah wa’l-Jamaa’ah is that they think and say nothing to criticize the companions of the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), as Allaah has described them in the verse in which He says (interpretation of the meaning):

‘And those who came after them say: Our Lord! Forgive us and our brethren who have preceded us in Faith, and put not in our hearts any hatred against those who have believed. Our Lord! You are indeed full of
kindness, Most Merciful’

[al-Hashr 69:10]

And they obey the command of the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him): ‘Do not curse my companions, for by the One in Whose hand is my soul, if any one of you were to spend the equivalent of Mount Uhud in gold, he would not reach the status of one of them, nor even come half way.’ (Agreed upon).”
Majmoo’ al-Fataawa, 3/152.

Abu Zar’ah (may Allaah have mercy on him) said:

“If you see a man criticizing any one of the Sahaabah, then know that he is a heretic, because the Qur’aan is true, and the Messenger is true, and what he brought is true, and no one conveyed all of that to us but the Sahaabah. So whoever criticizes them means in effect to say that the Qur’aan and Sunnah are false, so it is more appropriate that he should
be criticized and ruled to be a heretic who is misguided.”


Al-Sawaa’iq al-Muhriqah ‘ala Ahl al-Rafd wa’l-Dalaal wa’l-Zandaqah, 2/608.

With regard to the second part of the hadeeth, which enjoins refraining from speaking about the stars, what is referred to by that – and Allaah knows best – is seeking guidance by the stars concerning matters that are unseen, as the people of the jaahiliyyah used to do by means of
astrology, such as using the movement of heavenly bodies to indicate when certain earthly events would occur, such as the blowing of the wind, rainfall, changes in prices, and other matters which they claimed to know from the movements of heavenly bodies. They used to say that whoever got married under such and such a star, such and such would happen to him, or whoever traveled under such and such a star, such and such would happen to him, and whoever was born under such and such a star would be lucky or unlucky, etc.


(See Kitaab al-Tawheed by Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzaan, Baab Id’aa’ ‘ilm al-Ghayb min Qiraa’at al-Kaff wa’l-Finjaan wa ghayrihima. See also Fataawa al-‘Aqeedah, 2/185-186-187-190) by Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen, where he makes some very useful comments).

With regard to the third part of the hadeeth, which refers to refraining from speaking about the divine decree (al-qadar), Abu Ja’far al-Tahhaawi (may Allaah have mercy on him) said:

“The divine decree is a secret known which Allaah has hidden from His creation. No angel who is close to Him and no Prophet whom He sent
knows that. Pursuing such matters only leads to failure and deprivation of the mercy of Allaah, and it leads to injustice, so beware of looking into the matter, thinking about it and wondering about it. Allaah has kept knowledge of His decree from His slaves, and has forbidden them to pursue the matter, as He says in His Book (interpretation of the meaning):


‘He cannot be questioned as to what He does, while they will be questioned’
[al-Anbiya’ 21:23]

So whoever questions what Allaah does has rejected the ruling of the Book, and whoever rejects the ruling of the Book is a kaafir.”

Sharh al-‘Aqeedah al-Tahhaawiyyah, p. 276


So the Muslim has to submit to Allaah in all His affairs, and know that whatever happens to him could never have missed him, and what misses him could never have happened to him. There is a lot that may be said on this topic. May Allaah bless the man who believes in the will and decree of Allaah without indulging in philosophical discussion about the matter.

And Allaah knows best.

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PostSubject: Re: (Taqdir) Destiny and Fate (All Fatwas on Human being life)   Sun Jan 20, 2008 1:07 pm

Can we do what we want?

Question:
I have some questions about Islam, could you explain them for me? Are all of man’s actions, such as birth, death, his day-to-day behaviour, and all that he thinks about doing decreed by Allaah? Is our life programmed by Allaah before we are born? Or do we have freedom of choice and can we decide and do whatever we want, without that being controlled by Allaah? In brief, do we do whatever we want or what Allaah has created us to do?.
Answer:
Praise be to Allaah.


It should be noted that some of our circumstances are forced on us, and and we have no choice in it, such as the day when a person is born, the colour of his skin and eyes, and when he will die. All of these are matters over which people have no control, rather they happen to them by force. Given that these are matters in which people have no choice, they do not have anything to do with Paradise or Hell, torment or blessing.

But some actions are the subject of choice, such as whether to believe or disbelieve, or worldly matters such as choosing what to eat or drink, and where to live.

There is nothing of that nature which is entirely outside the will and decree of Allaah.

But how does that happen?

Belief in al-qadar (the divine will and decree) is one of the pillars of faith. The Muslim’s faith cannot be valid unless he accepts that everything comes from Allaah. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“Verily, We have created all things with Qadar (Divine Preordainments of all things before their creation as written in the Book of Decrees Al-Lawh Al-Mahfooz)”
[al-Qamar 54:49]

Indeed, the names of Allaah include al-Qaadir, al-Qadeer and al-Muqtadir (which refer to His being All-Powerful).

The heart of the matter is that Allaah possesses the attributes of knowledge, power and will.

Based on that, if people who do deeds want to do them, whether they are sins or acts of obedience, then Allaah inevitably knows that, indeed He knew that in eternity past, before He even created the universe.

Then after He knew it, He wrote it with Him, then when they wanted to do it, He willed that they should do so. If He did not will that, then they would not do it. He is All-Powerful, and He is the Creator of people’s deeds because He is the Creator of the human beings who do them.

So all the deeds of mankind are written with Allaah, because Allaah has prior knowledge of them. This does not mean that Allaah compels people to do what they do, rather they have freedom of choice with regard to their deeds. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“Verily, We showed him the way, whether he be grateful or
ungrateful”

[al-Insaan 76:3]

But their actions are not compelled by Allaah, for Allaah does not force His slaves to do anything.

Imaam Ibn Abi’l-‘Izz al-Hanafi said concerning a similar matter:

If it is said, How can Allaah will something that He is not pleased with and does not like? How can He will it and create it? How can His will be reconciled with His hatred for it?

It should be said (in response) that this is the question which has caused divisions among the people and has caused them to follow different paths and opinions.

It should be noted that what is willed may be of two types: that which is willed or wanted for itself, and that which is willed or wanted for something else.

That which is willed or wanted for itself is that which is wanted and loved for what it is and for the goodness it contains. So it comes under the heading of aims and goals. That which is willed or wanted for something else may not be what is wanted, but it serves a purpose; it may not serve any purpose in and of itself, even though it may be a means to attain that which he wants and is aiming for. So it may be something that is disliked in and of itself, but he may seek it because it serves a purpose and helps him reach what he wants. So in this case he will have two opposing feelings, his dislike (of the means) and his desire (for the end). There is no contradiction, as these feelings are related to different things. This is like unpleasant medicine which the one who takes it knows will cure him, or like cutting off a wasted limb when he knows that will save the rest of his body, or travelling a difficult route when he knows that it will bring him to what he wants and loves. The wise man would rather accept the disliked thing on the basis that he is likely to get good results even though the ultimate end may not be quite certain. So how about Allaah, from Whom nothing is hidden? He may dislike something but it may not be against His will for it to exist, because it may be a means to an end, and it may be a means to something that Allaah likes. For example, Allaah created Iblees, who is the cause of the corruption of religions, deeds, beliefs and human wills; but nevertheless he is a means to a lot of things that Allaah likes, which result from the creation of Iblees. For these things to exist is dearer to Allaah than if they did not exist at all.
Sharh al-‘Aqeedah al-Tahhaawiyyah, 252-253.

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PostSubject: Re: (Taqdir) Destiny and Fate (All Fatwas on Human being life)   Sun Jan 20, 2008 1:14 pm

A righteous woman is suffering trials and is asking why

Question:
I am a young woman. I used to live a happy life, although unislamic (except I used to pray and fast and reasonable hijab). Then since i got married, I started to become religious Alhamdulillah. But this is when my problems started. I always think to myself that I was not that bad in my life before marriage (as compared to other people who are much more unreligious), and I have not done many sins. So why is all this happening to me and what is the solution?


Answer:
Praise be to Allaah.

and blessings and peace be upon the Messenger of Allaah, who said: “Allaah has shared out your attitudes among you just as He has shared out your provisions. Allaah gives worldly provision to those whom He loves and those whom He does not love, but He gives religion only to those whom He loves. So whoever is given religion, Allaah loves him…” (Narrated by Ahmad, 3490; classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in al-Silsilah al-Saheehah, 714). Based on this hadeeth, you should praise Allaah a great deal for this blessing which He has bestowed upon you by enabling you to adhere to His religion. Note that trials are the nature of this world which is the world of tests and trials.

“and We shall make a trial of you with evil and with good. And to Us you will be returned”

[al-Anbiya’ 21:35 – interpretation of the meaning]

In the face of every trial the Muslim’s attitude should be that of one who is certain that Allaah does not decree for him anything but that which is good for his worldly and spiritual affairs. The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “How wonderful is the affair of the believer, for his affairs are all good, and this applies to no one but the believer. If something good happens to him, he is thankful for it and that is good for him. If something bad happens to him, he bears it with patience and that is good for him.” (Narrated by Muslim, 2999).

Everything that you have mentioned in your question comes under the heading of being tested by means of things that no person would want. What you must do is to bear it with patience and realize that all of that comes for Allaah for the purpose of good which He wants for you.

Adherence to the commands of Allaah is not the cause of the trials that have befallen you, because one of the things stated by sharee’ah is that righteousness is one of the causes of happiness and that the opposite is the cause of misery. Allaah says (interpretation of the
meanings):


“Whoever works righteousness — whether male or female — while he (or she) is a true believer (of Islamic Monotheism) verily, to him We will give a good life (in this world with respect, contentment and lawful provision)”
[al-Nahl 16:97]

“then whoever follows My Guidance he shall neither go astray, nor shall be distressed.

But whosoever turns away from My Reminder (i.e. neither believes in this Qur’aan nor acts on its teachings) verily, for him is a life of hardship”
[Ta-Ha 20:123-124]

Faith brings true happiness in both this world and in the Hereafter, and turning away from the remembrance of Allaah causes misery and hardship. True happiness is in the heart and is not cancelled out by whatever trials may befall the believer. Indeed the trials of this world happened to the Prophets too, as it says in the hadeeth: “The people who are most sorely tried are the Prophets, then those who are closest to them, then those who are next closest.” (Ahmad, 26539; classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in al-Silsilat al-Saheehah, 1165). According to another version, “A
man will be tested according to the level of his religious commitment, and the trials will keep affecting a slave of Allaah until he is left walking on the face of the earth with no burden of sin whatsoever.” (Narrated by Ibn Maajah, 4013; classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh Sunan Ibn Maajah, 3249). As stated above, in the first hadeeth quoted, ease and
hardship in this life are not related to a person’s religious commitment.


What we advise you to do is to strive to make yourself be patient and keep away from corrupt thoughts and from thinking negatively about Allaah. Do not let your adherence to Islam weaken because of these thoughts. One of the most important means that will help you to achieve this is making du’aa’. Indeed, difficulties may be a means of a person making
more du’aa’ to his Lord, which will open the door to much good for him. Choose the du’aa’s from the Qur’aan and Sunnah that are appropriate to seeking relief from distress, such as the prayer of Ayyoob:


“Verily, distress has seized me, and You are the Most Merciful of all those who show mercy”

[al-Anbiya’ 21:83 – interpretation of the meaning]

Be certain that you will receive a response, and do not be in too much of a hurry, for Allaah is more merciful towards His slave than a mother to her child. Strive to protect yourself with dhikr as prescribed in sharee’ah.

Another thing that will help you to be patient is to read the seerah (biography) of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), and the trials and hardships that he endured. You should also ponder the reward for those who are patient in this world and in the Hereafter. One of the most useful books on this topic is ‘Uddat al_Saabireen by Ibn al-Qayyim (may Allaah have mercy on him). [Note: an abridged translation of this book is available in English under the title “Patience and Gratitude”, Ta-Ha Publishers, London, UK]

We ask Allaah to grant you patience and make you steadfast, and to heal you and your child, and to restore good relations with your husband and your family. May He help us and you to adhere steadfastly to the path of truth.

Sheikh Muhammed Salih Al-Munajjid

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PostSubject: Re: (Taqdir) Destiny and Fate (All Fatwas on Human being life)   Sun Jan 20, 2008 1:22 pm

If things are decreed, then how can a person be called to account for them?

Question:
Was doing any sin previously written and predetermined by Allah? If the answer is yes, then why does Allah destine for some to commit sins, and for others to do good deeds, while we all are humans?.


Answer:
Praise be to Allaah.


One must believe in two things:

1 – That Allaah, may He be exalted, is the Creator of all things, and nothing happens in the universe except by His will. He knows what is to come and He decreed all of that and wrote it in a Book fifty thousand years before He created the heavens and the earth, as is stated in a saheeh report from our Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him). He is Just and does not wrong anyone in the slightest, because He is independent of His creation and has no need of them. He is Kind and Gracious to them constantly, so how could He wrong them?

This principle is indicated by a great deal of evidence in the Qur’aan and Sunnah, such as the verses in which Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“Verily, We have created all things with Qadar (Divine Preordainments of all things before their creation as written in the Book of Decrees ___ Al‑Lawh Al‑Mahfooz)”
[al-Qamar 54:49]

“No calamity befalls on the earth or in yourselves but it is inscribed in the Book of Decrees (Al‑Lawh Al‑Mahfooz) before We bring it into existence. Verily, that is easy for Allaah”
[al-Hadeed 57:22].

And the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Allaah decided the decrees of creation fifty thousand years before He created the heavens and the earth. He said: And His Throne is above the water.” Narrated by Muslim (2653).

2 – Man has free will and choice by means of which he does some things and refrains from others, and he believes or disbelieves, and he
obeys or disobeys, for which he will be brought to account and rewarded or
punished, although Allaah knows what he will do, what he will choose and what his ultimate destiny will be. But Allaah does not compel him to do evil, or to choose kufr, rather He clearly shows him the path and He has sent Messengers and revealed Books, and shown him the right way. Whoever goes astray does so to his own loss,.


Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“And say: ‘The truth is from your Lord.’ Then whosoever wills, let him believe; and whosoever wills, let him disbelieve”
[al-Kahf 18:29]

“Verily, We showed him the way, whether he be grateful or ungrateful”
[al-Insaan 76:3]

“So whosoever does good equal to the weight of an atom (or a small ant) shall see it.

8. And whosoever does evil equal to the weight of an atom (or a small ant) shall see it”
[al-Zalzalah 99:7,8]


“And it will be cried out to them: ‘This is the Paradise which you have inherited for what you used to do’”
[al-A’raaf 7:43]

“so taste you the abiding torment for what you used to do”
[al-Sajdah 32:14]

Allaah tells us that man believes and does righteous deeds by his own choice and free will, then he enters Paradise, or he disbelieves and
does evil deeds by his own choice and free will, then he enters Hell.


Every person knows in his own heart and by looking at those around him, that our deeds – good and evil, obedient and sinful – are done by our own choice, and we do not feel that there is any force compelling us
to do them. You can curse, swear, lie and backbite, just as you can praise Allaah, glorify Him, pray for forgiveness, speak the truth and give sincere advice. You can walk to places of idle entertainment, falsehood and evil, just as you can walk to the mosques or places of goodness and obedience. A man can strike with his hand, steal, speak falsehood and betray, or he can help the needy, do good and do favours with his hands. Everyone does some of these deeds and he does not feel that he is compelled or forced, rather he does them by his own free will and then he will be called to account for them; if they were good, then the consequences will be good, and if they were bad then the consequences will be bad.


What Allaah has decreed is something that man cannot know and he cannot base his deeds on it or use it as an excuse. It is also not valid for him to object to his Lord by questioning why He has caused someone to be among the doomed or the blessed. Allaah has not wronged the one who is doomed, rather He gave him time and ability and freedom of choice, and He sent to him Messengers and revealed Books to them, and He reminded him and warned him with all kinds of reminders, such as calamities and tests, so that he would repent to Him and turn to Him. If he chose the path of misguidance, and followed the way of criminals, he only harmed himself, and he is the one who has caused his own doom, as Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“Indeed he succeeds who purifies his ownself (i.e. obeys and performs all that Allaah ordered, by following the true Faith of Islamic Monotheism and by doing righteous good deeds).

10. And indeed he fails who corrupts his ownself (i.e. disobeys what Allaah has ordered by rejecting the true Faith of Islamic Monotheism or by following polytheism, or by doing every kind of evil wicked deeds)”
[al-Shams 91:9, 10]

“Allaah wronged them not, but they wronged themselves”
[Aal ‘Imraan 3:117]

“Has not the story reached them of those before them? — The people of Nooh (Noah), ‘Aad, and Thamood, the people of Ibraaheem (Abraham), the dwellers of Madyan (Midian) and the cities overthrown [i.e. the people to whom Loot (Lot) preached]; to them came their Messengers with clear proofs. So it was not Allaah Who wronged them, but they used to wrong themselves”
[al-Tawbah 9:70]

To sum up: the belief that Allaah is the Creator Who has decreed all things and has distinguished those who are blessed from those who are doomed, does not mean that Allaah forces His slaves to obey or disobey. Rather He has given them the ability to choose and free will, which is what they act upon, and for which they will be brought to account. Your Lord does not wrong His slaves.

See also the answer to question no. 96989.

And Allaah knows best.

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PostSubject: Re: (Taqdir) Destiny and Fate (All Fatwas on Human being life)   Sun Jan 20, 2008 1:29 pm

Is my marriage decreed? Do obedience and sin alter the divine decree?

Question:
Has Allaah decreed for everyone whom they will marry? Do sin and obedience play any role in changing the divine decree?
I like a girl who is religiously committed and of good character, but she does not like me, Is it permissible for me to pray to Allaah to make her like me and to make her my wife in the future?.


Answer:
Praise be to Allaah.

Firstly:
The divine decree means that Allaah has decreed all things from eternity, and He knows that they will happen at the times that are known to Him, in specific ways as He has written and willed. They will happen as He has decreed them and created them.

Belief in the divine decree is one of the pillars of faith without which a person’s faith is not valid, and belief in the divine decree is not valid unless the Muslim believes in the four principles of the divine decree which are:

1 – Belief that Allaah knows all things in general and in details from eternity, and not even an atom is hidden from Him in heaven or on earth.

2 – Belief that Allaah wrote all that in al-Lawh al-Mahfooz, fifty thousand years before He created the heavens and the earth.

3 – Belief in the effective will of Allaah and His all-encompassing power. Nothing happens in this universe, good or bad, except by His will, may He be glorified.

4 – Belief that everything is created by Allaah; He is the Creator of all things and the Creator of their attributes and actions.

For more details on this, please see the answers to questions no.
49004 and 34732.


These details will explain to you that Allaah has decreed from eternity who will be your family, who will be your wife, and who will be your children. Everything that has happened and will happen in the universe is decreed by Allaah. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“Verily, We have created all things with Qadar (Divine Preordainments of all things before their creation as written in the Book of Decrees __Al‑Lawh Al‑Mahfooz)”
[al-Qamar 54:49]

Secondly:
This does not mean that a person has no will in this world, or that a person should not strive to apply the means of attaining happiness and soundness. Allaah has created a means to reach every objective. Whoever wants to have a child has to get married. Whoever wants to be happy in the Hereafter has to strive hard for it, and follow the path of guidance. Whoever wants wealth has to work hard.

The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Know that everyone will be guided to do that for which he was created. Whoever is meant to be one of the people of happiness will be guided to do the deeds of the people of happiness, and whoever is meant to be one of the people of doom will be guided to do the deeds of the people of doom.” Agreed upon.
Allaah does not tell anyone the details of what will happen to him, good or bad. Hence everyone has to strive to bring goodness to himself and ward off harm from himself. It is not wise to travel a path that leads to the opposite of what he wants and then say, “I will never get anything but that which has been decreed for me.” No one should sit in his house and then say: “I will never get any provision but that which has been decreed for me.” No one should eat rotten food and then say: “Nothing will happen to me but that which Allaah has decreed for me.” These are things which if anyone does them or says them, he would be regarded as insane and he is indeed insane.

With regard to marriage in particular, the Muslim knows that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) encouraged marriage to one who is religiously committed. This means that he should look for and seek out one who is religiously committed. No wise man would say “I will never try to do that” because if he is offered a woman who is insane or ugly or old or of bad character, he would never accept her as a wife. He will never say that he will marry the first woman he sees or the first woman who is offered to him. This supports what we have said, that he will turn away from some women and will think about others and will hesitate about some of them, and so on.
If, after looking, thinking, consulting others and praying istikhaarah, he chooses a woman who is suitable for him, he will know that what Allaah decrees happens and what He does not decree does not happen, so he should hope that his Lord will guide him and decree for him that which is best for him and dearest to Allaah. Then if it happens, and his Lord decrees that he be given it or it be withheld, and whether it is in accordance with his desires or not, he has to think positively of his Lord and realize that
Allaah does not decree anything for His grateful, patient, believing slave but that which is good. The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “How wonderful is the affair of the believer, for all his affairs are good and this does not apply to anyone except the believer. If something good happens to him he is grateful, and that is good
for him, and if something bad happens to him he is patient, and that is good
for him.” Narrated by Muslim (2999).


See also the answer to question no. 1804.

Thirdly:
With regard to the effect of obedience and sin on changing the divine decree, you know that that which is in al-Lawh al-Mahfooz can never be changed. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “The pens have been lifted and the pages have dried.” Narrated and classed as saheeh by al-Tirmidhi (2516), from the hadeeth of Ibn ‘Abbaas. As for the pages which are in the hands of the angels, Allaah may command His angels to change it because of an act of worship that a Muslim does or because of a sin that he commits, but in the end it will not be anything other than that which was decreed from eternity. This is indicated by the verse in which Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“Allaah blots out what He wills and confirms (what He wills). And with Him is the Mother of the Book (Al‑Lawh Al‑Mahfooz)”
[al-Ra’d 13:39]

The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) urged us to do some acts of worship which have an effect of increasing a person’s lifespan, such as upholding ties of kinship, and he said that du’aa’ can repel the divine decree. What this means is that Allaah knew from the beginning that His slave So and so would do this act of worship, so He decreed for him a long life or a blessed provision, and au contraire a person may commit a sin because of which he is deprived of provision, and Allaah knew that and decreed it from eternity and decreed it according to His knowledge. Allaah does not compel anyone to obey Him or disobey Him.

The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) summed this up in one hadeeth:

It was narrated that Thawbaan said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Nothing increases one’s lifespan except righteousness and nothing repels the divine decree except du’aa’, and a man may be deprived of provision by a sin that he commits.”

Al-Busayri said in Misbaah al-Zujaajah (no. 33)

I asked our Shaykh Abu’l-Fadl al-‘Iraaqi (may Allaah have mercy on him) about this hadeeth and he said: This is a hasan hadeeth. End quote.

It was also classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh Ibn Maajah.

It was narrated from Anas ibn Maalik that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Whoever would like his rizq (provision) to be increased and his life to be extended, should uphold the ties of kinship.” Narrated by al-Bukhaari (5640) and Muslim (2557).

Al-Tabaraani narrated with his isnaad from Abu ‘Uthmaan al-Nahdi, that ‘Umar ibn al-Khattaab said when he was circumambulating the Ka’bah and weeping: “O Allaah, if You have decreed that I should be doomed or commit sin, then erase it, for You erase whatever You will, and You confirm (whatever You will), and with You is the Mother of the Book, so make it happiness and forgiveness.”

The Taabi’i Abu Waa’il Shaqeeq ibn Salamah often used to supplicate with these words: “O Allaah, if You have decreed that we be doomed, then erase it and decree that we be blessed. If You have decreed that we be blessed, then confirm it for us, for You erase whatever You will and You You confirm (whatever You will), and with You is the Mother of the Book.” (Tafseer al-Tabari, 7/398).

See also the answer to question no. 43021.

Fourthly:
Your love for a girl who is of good character and religiously committed means that you must beware of falling into anything that is forbidden in sharee’ah, such as corresponding with her, speaking to her or being alone with her. We do not advise you to pray to Allaah to make her like you, rather we advise you to pray that Allaah will bless you with a righteous wife. If you see a woman to whom the description of a righteous woman applies, then go ahead and propose marriage to her. There is no need to specify a particular woman who may reciprocate your love and then you may both do something that is contrary to sharee’ah but it may not be easy for you to get married. Asking Allaah to help you to find a righteous wife is better for you, in our opinion.

To be honest with you, we think that forming an attachment to that girl is a sign of idleness. What we mean is that you are not keeping yourself busy with important things, so the Shaytaan is filling your heart with things that will harm you and affect your religious commitment, or things that go against your best interests.

Ibn al-Jawzi narrated that Ibn ‘Aa’ishah said: I said to a doctor who was highly proficient: What is love? He said: The occupation of an empty heart. [Dhamm al-Hawa 290].

But tell me, by Allaah, are you seriously looking for a suitable wife right now?

If you are serious about it, would you really go ahead and get married now?

If you are serious about getting married now, are your circumstances suited for that?

It was narrated that Muhammad ibn Maslamah said: I proposed marriage to a woman, then I hid and waited to see her until I saw her among some date palm trees that belonged to her. It was said to him: Do you do such a thing when you are a companion of the Messenger of Allaah (S)? He said, “When Allaah causes a man to propose to a woman, there is nothing wrong with him looking at her.”

Narrated by Ibn Maajah (1864); classed as saheeh by al-Albaani.

Look at how the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) made permission to look conditional upon the intent to marry.

The scholars said: This is an exception to the prohibition on looking at a non-mahram woman. Hence it is only justified in cases of necessity when it is hoped that the marriage will go ahead.

Ibn al-Qattaan (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: If the one who is proposing marriage to a woman knows that she will not marry him, and that her guardian will not agree to it, then it is not permissible for him to look at her, even if he has already asked her family for her hand in marriage, because looking is only permitted so that it might be a cause of the marriage going ahead. If he is sure that it will not happen, then the basic principle that looking is not allowed remains in effect.

Al-Nazr fi Ahkaam al-Nazr, 391.

It is well known that wanting to get married on the part of one who cannot afford it or whose circumstances do not permit it at the present time is a kind of fooling about and wasting time, which distracts the heart from useful things, and may even cause harm.

When you are serious, then seek the help of Allaah and ask Him to guide you. If she remains as she is, and you have prayed istikhaarah asking your Lord for guidance, then go ahead and propose to her. Otherwise, there are many other women like her, so seek one who is religiously committed, may your hands be rubbed with dust!

We ask Allaah to guide you to that which will please Him, and to help you to do that which He loves and which pleases Him, and to bless you with a righteous wife and good offspring.

And Allaah knows best.

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PostSubject: Re: (Taqdir) Destiny and Fate (All Fatwas on Human being life)   Sun Jan 20, 2008 1:39 pm

Meaning of the hadeeth; “Then the divine decree overtakes him and he does the deeds of the people of Hell”

Question:
I would like you to explain the meaning of this Hadeeth:

Narrated Abi Abdurrahman Abdullah bin Mas'ud, May Allah is pleased with him:

Allah's Apostle, the true and truly inspired said, "(The matter of the Creation of) a human being is put together in the womb of the mother in forty days, and then he becomes a clot of thick blood for a similar period, and then a piece of flesh for a similar period. Then Allah sends an angel who breathes the soul into him, and is ordered to write four things. He is ordered to write down his (i.e. the new creature's) deeds, his livelihood, his (date of) death, and whether he will be blessed or wretched (in religion). So, by Allah the One, a man amongst you may do good deeds till there is only a cubit between him and Paradise and then what has been written for him decides his behavior and he starts doing (evil) deeds characteristic of the people of the (Hell) Fire. And similarly, a man amongst you may do (evil) deeds till there is only a cubit between him and the (Hell) Fire, and then what has been written for him decides his behavior, and he starts doing
deeds characteristic of the people of Paradise." Narrated by Al-Bukhari.

To be honest with you I feel bad sometimes that I may do good deeds while it is written that I am from the people of hell. I wish you answer me, thanks a lot for your efforts, may Allah greaten your reward.


Answer:
Praise be to Allaah.


Ibn al-Qayyim (may Allaah have mercy on him) said:

Those who are ignorant of Allaah and His names and attributes misinterpret their true meanings and turn people against Allaah and put obstacles between the people and loving Allaah and drawing close to Him without realizing.

We will mention some examples of that, such as that they try to make people with shallow knowledge (or weak faith) think that no acts of obedience towards Allaah will do any good, even if that is done for a long time and a person has tried his utmost to do it properly both outwardly and inwardly; and that a person cannot be safe from the plot of Allaah, rather it is Allaah’s way to take the obedient one who fears Allaah out of the mosque and into the
brothels, and from Tawheed and tasbeeh to shirk and flutes, and turn his
heart from pure faith to kufr. They narrated sound reports concerning this
that they do not understand properly, and false reports that the Prophet
never said, and they claim that this is the essence of Tawheed. End quote.
Al-Fawaa’id (159).


Then he (may
Allaah have mercy on him) said: … So this poor person no longer sees actions
as being good or bad, so he does not feel comfortable when doing good, or
feel distressed when doing bad. Is there any more effective way of putting
people off Allaah and making them hate Him than this?! If all the heretics
strive hard to make people hate religion and put them off Allaah, they could
never have come up with anything worse than this.


The one who has this belief thinks that he is reinforcing the ideas of Tawheed and the divine will and decree, and refuting the innovators and supporting Islam, but by Allaah, a wise enemy is less harmful than an ignorant friend. All the revealed Books and all the Messengers bear witness to the opposite of that, especially the Qur’aan. If those who seek to call others to Allaah follow the method that is established by Allaah and His Messenger in calling people to Islam, the whole world would be reformed in such a way that there would be no corruption after that.

Allaah tells us – and He is the One Who is truthful and fulfils promises – that He only judges people on the basis of their actions, and recompenses them for their deeds, and the one who does good should not fear any injustice or unfairness; He will never cause the deeds of any doer of good to be lost, no matter how small, or wrong any soul in the slightest. “But if there is any good (done), He doubles it, and gives from Him a great reward” [al-Nisa’ 4:40]. Even if it is the size of a grain of mustard seed, He gives reward for it and does not cause it to be lost. He recompenses bad deeds with the like thereof, and cancels them out if a person repents, regrets it and seeks forgiveness and does good deeds, or if calamities befall him. But He rewards a good deed anything from ten fold to seven hundred fold or more.

He is the One Who reforms the misguided and turns back to Him the hearts of those who turn away; He accepts the repentance of sinners, guides the misled, saves the doomed, teaches the ignorant, guides the confused, reminds the heedless, gives refuge to the lost. When He sends a punishment, it is only after severe rebellion and stubborn turning away, and after calling the people to turn back to Him. End quote.
Al-Fawaa’id (161).

There follows a great hadeeth which was narrated by al-Bukhaari (3208) and Muslim (2643) from Ibn Mas’ood (may Allaah be pleased with him). Some people were confused about the words of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) “one of you may do the deeds of the people of Paradise until there is nothing between him and it but a cubit, then the decree overtakes him and he does a deed of the people of Hell and enters it. And one of you may do the deeds of the people of Hell until there is nothing between him and it but a cubit, then the decree overtakes him and he does a deed of the people of Paradise, and enters it.”

This is an example of what Ibn al-Qayyim (may Allaah have mercy on him) tried to point out of saheeh reports which are not understood properly.

The answer to this is that it applies to the one who does not do deeds with sincerity and faith, rather he does deeds of the people of Paradise as it appears to people only, as is explained in another version of the hadeeth that was narrated by al-Bukhaari (4207) and Muslim (112) from Sahl who said: The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and the mushrikeen met in battle and fought. When the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) went back to his camp and the others went back to their camp, there was among the companions of the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him)a man who killed anyone (of the enemy) who got in his way. They said: No one has done better today than So and so. The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said, “Rather he is one of the people of Hell.” A man said: I am going to follow him. So he went out with him; every time that man stopped, he stopped with him, and when he hastened, he hastened with him. He said: The man was badly wounded, so he sought to hasten his death. He put the handle of his sword on the ground and its tip in the middle of his chest, then he leaned [on his sword] and killed himself. The man went to the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and said: I bear witness that you are the Messenger of Allaah (S). He said: “Why is that?” He said: The man who you said was one of the people of Hell and the people were astounded by that. I said, I will find out about him for you. So I followed him until he was badly wounded, then he sought to hasten his death. He put the handle of his sword on the ground and its tip in the middle of his chest, then he leaned on it and killed himself. The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “A man may do the deeds of [the people of] Paradise, or so it seems to the people, although he is one of the people of Hell, and a man may do the deeds of [the people of] Hell, or so it seems to the people, although he is one of the people of Paradise.”

As for the one who does the deeds of the people of Paradise in a real sense, sincerely and on the basis of faith, Allaah is too just, merciful and generous to let him down at the end of his life.

Rather these are the ones who are guided, directed and helped to persist, as Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“Allaah will keep firm those who believe, with the word that stands firm in this world (i.e. they will keep on worshipping Allaah Alone and none else), and in the Hereafter. And Allaah will cause to go astray those who are Zaalimoon (polytheists and wrongdoers), and Allaah does what He wills”
[Ibraaheem 14:27]

“As for those who strive hard in Us (Our Cause), We will surely guide them to Our paths (i.e. Allaah’s religion — Islamic Monotheism). And verily, Allaah is with the Muhsinoon (good-doers).”
[al-‘Ankaboot 29:69]

“Verily, he who fears Allaah with obedience to Him (by abstaining from sins and evil deeds, and by performing righteous good deeds), and is patient, then surely, Allaah makes not the reward of the Muhsinoon (good‑doers) to be lost”
[Yoosuf 12:90]

“They rejoice in a grace and a bounty from Allaah, and that Allaah will not waste the reward of the believers”
[Aal ‘Imraan 3:171]

Ibn al-Qayyim said in al-Fawaa’id (p. 163): With regard to the fact that a man may do the deeds of the people of Paradise until there is nothing between him and it but a cubit, then the decree overtakes him, this refers to the actions of the people of Paradise as they appear to other people. If it was a righteous deed that is acceptable to Allaah, then Allaah would love it, accept it and not cancel it out. Someone may say that this phrase, “until there is nothing between him and it but a cubit”, does not support what we have suggested; the answer to that is that if deeds are to be judged by the way they end, this man did not have enough patience to complete his deeds properly; rather there was a hidden problem and something wrong with his deeds, by means of which he was let down towards the end of his life, so that hidden, serious, fatal problem caused his downfall at the time of need.
If there was no problem and no insincerity, Allaah would not have turned his
faith into disbelief. And Allaah knows better than all people what they do not know of each other. End quote.


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PostSubject: Re: (Taqdir) Destiny and Fate (All Fatwas on Human being life)   Sun Jan 20, 2008 1:44 pm

Ibn Rajab (may Allaah have mercy on him) said:

The words “as it appears to people” indicate that what is hidden may be different from what is apparent to people, and that a bad end is
because of a hidden problem in a person that people are not aware of, whether it is a bad deed and the like, so that hidden quality may lead to a bad end at death.


Similarly, a man may do a deed of the people of Hell, but inwardly he has some good quality, and that prevails at the end of his life, and leads to a good end for him.

‘Abd al-‘Azeez ibn Abi Rawaad said: A man was dying and he was being prompted to say Laa ilaaha ill-Allaah, but the last words he said were, “He does not believe in what you are saying” (referring to himself), and he died like that!

He said: I asked about him, and found that he was addicted to alcohol!

‘Abd al-‘Azeez used to say: Beware of sins for it is sins that led him to this bad end.

In general, how people end up is the consequences of what went before, and all of that has been previously written in a Book, hence the salaf greatly feared a bad end, and some of them would feel anxious when
remembering previous sins.


It was said that the hearts of the righteous are concerned about how their life will end, and they always wonder: how will our end be?

The hearts of those who are close to Allaah are concerned about previous sins, and say:
How will our sins affect our ends? Sahl al-Tastari said: The one who has started his journey towards Allaah fears that he may fall into sin and the one who is close to Allaah fears that he may end fall into kufr (disbelief).

Hence the Sahaabah and the righteous salaf who came after them feared that they might become hypocrites, and their fear and anxiety were intense. So the believer fears lesser hypocrisy for himself, and worries that it might prevail at the end of his life, and take him into a state of major hypocrisy, as it was mentioned above that hidden problems may lead to a bad end. End quote.
Jaami’ al-‘Uloom wa’l-Hukam (1/57-5.

Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: The hadeeth of Ibn Mas’ood, “until there is nothing between him and it but a cubit” means, Paradise. It does not mean that his deeds bring him to this position until there remains nothing but a cubit, because if he were doing the deeds of the people of Paradise in a true sense, Allaah would not let
him down because Allaah is more generous than His slaves. Imagine a person devoted to Allaah, and there is nothing but a cubit between him and Paradise: would Allaah turn him away?! This is impossible. Rather the meaning is that he does the deeds of the people of Paradise as it appears to others, until when there is nothing left of his lifespan but a little, his heart drifts away – Allaah forbid; we ask Allaah to keep us safe and sound. This is the meaning of the hadeeth of Ibn Mas’ood:
when there is nothing left between him and Paradise but a cubit with regard to his lifespan, otherwise he was not doing the deeds of the people of Paradise in the first place.


We ask Allaah not to misguide our hearts. (So the person referred to) is striving but in his heart there is some hidden evil that leads to his
doom when there is only one cubit left when he dies. End quote from al-Liqa’ al-Shahri (13/14).


Some scholars suggested that the person mentioned in the hadeeth may be striving in a true sense, until when his lifespan nears its end, he meets a bad end, and dies in a state of kufr or sin, but this is rare.
This also goes back to something hidden or some serious evil quality that the person persisted in, such as corrupt belief or a major sin that dooms one to Hell, which led to his bad end. We ask Allaah to keep us safe and sound. So the hadeeth is to be understood as a warning that no one should rely too much on his deeds and we should ask Allaah for steadfastness until death, for hearts are between two fingers of the Most Merciful and He turns them as He wills.


Al-Nawawi (may Allaah have mercy on him) said in Sharh Muslim: What is meant by a cubit is an indication of how close he is to death, and whether he will enter Paradise or Hell after that, and that there is nothing between him and his reaching that abode except a cubit, like that which remains between him and his reaching any spot on earth. What this hadeeth means is that this may happen in rare cases to some people, not that it is the norm. Moreover it is a sign of Allaah’s kindness and mercy that
people may revert from evil to good in many cases. As for their reverting from good to evil, this is very rare and hardly ever happens. This is like the words of Allaah [in the hadeeth qudsi]: “My mercy precedes My wrath and prevails over My wrath.” That includes those who turn to the deeds of Hell by disbelieving or sinning, but they (the scholars) differ with regard to whether they will abide therein forever or not. The kaafir will abide in Hell forever, but the sinner who dies believing in Tawheed will not abide therein forever, as stated above. In this hadeeth there is a clear confirmation of the divine decree, and that repentance erases all sins that came before it, and that whatever state a person dies in, he will be judged accordingly, whether it is good or bad, but those who commit sins other than kufr are subject to the will of Allaah. End quote.


What should be noted in this context is that the same hadeeth which confused you also contains the answer to this confusion. That is because it does not only confirm the concept of the divine decree and Allaah’s prior knowledge of His creation and His prior writing of their deeds, but in this and similar texts, in addition to all that, there is also
affirmation of His commands and prohibitions, and that Allaah does not punish them or bless them on the basis of His knowledge concerning them only, but rather on the basis of what they did and earned themselves.


Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allaah have mercy on him) said:
This hadeeth and similar reports point to two concepts:

1 – The prior decree, which means that Allaah already knows who are the people of Paradise and who are the people of Hell before they do any deeds. This is true and must be believed in. Indeed the imams, such as
Maalik, al-Shaafa’i and Ahmad, have stated that the one who denies this is a kaafir. Rather we must believe that Allaah knows everything that is going to happen before it happens, and we must believe in what He has told us that He has decreed will happen and has told us of it before it happens.


2 – That Allaah knows all things the way they are, and He has made for things means that may lead to these things. So He knows that these things could result from these means, as He knows that this man may have a child by means of having intercourse with a woman that makes her pregnant. If this man says: Allaah knows that I am going to have a child so there is no need for me to have intercourse, then he is a fool, because Allaah knows that it will come about by means of what He has decreed of intercourse. Similarly a man knows that crops will grow as the result of his
watering the seeds that he has planted, but if he says: He knows that it will happen so there is no need to plant seeds, then he is ignorant and misguided because Allaah knows what will come about by those means.


Similarly, if He knows that this one will be blessed in the Hereafter and that one will be doomed, we say: it is because that one does the deeds of the doomed, so Allaah knows that he will be doomed because of his deeds. If it is said that he is doomed even if he does not do anything, this is false, because Allaah does not admit anyone to Hell except for his sin, as Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): “That I will fill Hell with you [Iblees (Satan)] and those of them (mankind) that follow you, together” [Saad 38:85].
So He swore to fill it with Iblees and his followers, and those who follow Iblees have disobeyed Allaah, may He be exalted, but Allaah does not punish anyone for what He knows he will do until he does it.


Similarly Allaah has decreed Paradise for the people who believe in Him and obey Him, so the one who is decreed to be one of them is guided by Allaah to believe and obey. The one who says, I will enter Paradise whether I am a believer or a disbeliever, if He knows that I am one of its people, is fabricating a lie against Allaah. Allaah knows that he will be
admitted to it by faith, so if he does not have faith he will not be the one who Allaah knew would enter Paradise, rather he will be not a believer but a kaafir, and Allaah knows that he will be one of the people of Hell, not one of the people of Paradise.


Hence Allaah commanded people to pray, seek forgiveness from Allaah and other means. The one who says, I will not pray or ask, and I will rely on the divine decree, is also mistaken, because Allaah has made praying and asking means of attaining His forgiveness, mercy, guidance, support and provision. If He has decreed some good for a person to be attained by means of du’aa’ that will not be attained it without du’aa’. What
Allaah has decreed and knows about people’s situations and how their lives will end, it is only decreed through the means that lead to that specific outcome. Nothing in this world or in the Hereafter happens except through means, and Allaah is the Creator of the means and the ends.


With regard to this matter, two types of people go astray. There are those who believe in the divine decree and think that it is sufficient to attain one's aims, so they turn away from the prescribed means and righteous deeds. They will end up disbelieving in the Books of Allaah, His Messengers and His religion.

(The other group) ask for reward from Allaah as a hired man asks for his wages from his employer, relying on their own power, strength and deeds. These people are ignorant and misguided, because Allaah has not enjoined His commands upon people out of need, and He has not imposed His prohibitions out of stinginess, rather He has enjoined what is in their best interests and He has forbidden that which is bad for them. As He says: “You will never be in a position where you are able to harm Me and you will never be in a position to benefit Me.”

The one who turns away from the commands and prohibitions, promises and warnings, and focuses only on the divine decree has gone astray, and the one who strives to follow the commands and prohibitions and ignores the divine decree has gone astray. Rather the believer is as Allaah says: “You (Alone) we worship, and You (Alone) we ask for help (for each and everything)” [al-Faatihah 1:5], so we worship Him by following the command, and we seek His help on the basis our belief in the divine decree. End quote.

Muqtatafaat min Majmoo’ al-Fataawa (8/66 ff).
And Allaah knows best.

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PostSubject: Re: (Taqdir) Destiny and Fate (All Fatwas on Human being life)   Sun Jan 20, 2008 1:50 pm

Why do children suffer in this world?

Question:
I tried to call a cooleague of mine to belief in God, and to Islam. He said that his main barrier to belief in existence of God was the puzzle that totally innocent children go through pain and suffering on Earth, and that he could not understand why, if a God existed, this could be allowed to happen.

I gave it some thought, and came up with an answer, but would like your comments too before communicating to him the answer. I wouldn't like to tell you about my answer since it might affect your original thinking.


Answer:
Praise be to Allaah.


All people should know that Allaah is All Wise, and that there is great wisdom behind His commands and decrees. He may let His slaves or some of them know the wisdom behind them, or it may be concealed from them as a test and a trial.

What He decrees in general matters happens for a general reason, such as sending the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him). Allaah has told us that He sent him as a Mercy to the worlds. And similarly He created the jinn and mankind so that they might believe in Him and worship Him alone.

Ibn Taymiyah said:

Based on this, everything that He does, we know that there is wisdom behind it. This is sufficient for us in general terms, even if we do not know the details. Our lack of knowledge about the details of His wisdom
is like our lack of knowledge about the details of His Essence. Just as it is proven that His attributes are perfect but we cannot know how His Essence is, so we do not reject what we know and are sure of (that He is perfect) because of what we do know (the details of His perfection). Similarly we know that He is All-Wise in all that He does and commands. The fact that we may not know the wisdom behind some minor decrees and issues should not undermine the basic principle of what we know of His wisdom. So we should not deny what we know of His wisdom because we do not know all the details of His wisdom. We know that whoever realizes the brilliance of
mathematicians, doctors and grammarians but does not share their attributes by virtue of which they deserve prominence, cannot criticize what they say because he does not comprehend what they are saying. People are less likely to understand the wisdom of Allaah in His creation than the common man is to understand mathematics, medicine and grammar. So objecting to Allaah’s wisdom is more ignorant and the one who does that is worse off than an ignorant man who criticizes mathematics, medicine and grammar without having any knowledge of these disciplines.

Majmoo’ al-Fataawa, 6/128

Undoubtedly in Allaah’s allowing children to suffer there is great wisdom which may be hidden from some people, thus they object to the Divine decree and the Shaytaan takes advantage of this issue to turn him away from the truth and right guidance.

Among the reasons why Allaah allows children to suffer are the following:

1- It is a means to show that the child is sick or in pain; if it were not for that suffering it would not be known what sickness he is suffering from.

2- The crying that is caused by the pain brings great benefits to the child’s body.

3- Learning lessons: the family of this child may be committing haraam actions or neglecting obligatory duties, but when they see the suffering of their child, that prompts them to give up those haraam actions such as consuming riba, committing zina, not praying or smoking, especially if the child’s suffering is due to an illness that they caused, as happens in the case of some of the haraam things mentioned above.

4- Thinking about the Hereafter, for there is no true happiness and peace except in Paradise; there is no suffering and pain there, only good health, well-being and happiness. And thinking about Hell, for that is the abode of eternal and never-ending pain and suffering. So one will do that which will bring him nearer to Paradise and take him further away from Hell.

Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah said:

Then think about the wisdom of Allaah in causing children to cry a lot, and the benefits that that brings to them. The doctors and naturalists have attested to the benefits of that and the wisdom behind it.
They said: There is moisture in children’s brains which, if it were to remain in their brains, would cause a great deal of harm. So crying draws that moisture out and drains it from their brains, which makes them stronger and healthier.


Moreover, crying and yelling widens the breathing passages and veins, and strengthens them, and it strengthens the nerves.

How greatly do children benefit from the crying and yelling that we hear from them. If this is the wisdom with regard to crying that is caused by pain and the wisdom behind this never crossed your mind, the same applies to the suffering of children and its causes and good consequences.
There is a great deal of wisdom that may be hidden from most of the people and they are greatly confused about it.

Miftaah Daar al-Sa’aadah, 2/228.

He also said:

These pains are one of the inherent features of man’s development from which no man or animal can be free. If man were free of pain he would not be a man, rather he would be an angel or some other creature.

Children’s pain is not more difficult than the pain experienced by grownups, but grownups have become accustomed to pain so it is no longer a big issue for them. What a great difference there is between what a child suffers and what a rational adult suffers.

All of that is one of the main aspects of the human condition. If man were not created like that he would be a different creature. What do you think if a child gets hungry or thirsty or cold or tired – is it something that he was singled out for and tested with that the grownups are not tested with? Man – and indeed animals – have been created on this basis.

They said: If someone were to ask: Why has man been created thus? Why was he not created without this vulnerability to pain and suffering?

This is a flawed question, because Allaah has created him in a world of trials from a weak substance. So he is vulnerable to diseases and suffering, and Allaah has created him in such a way that he is vulnerable to
all kinds of pain…


The fact that these pains and pleasures coexist is one of the signs of the Hereafter, for divine wisdom has decreed that there should be two abodes: an abode that is devoted fully to pleasure, in which there is no
pain at all, and an abode that is devoted fully to pain in which there is no
pleasure at all. The former abode is Paradise and the latter abode is Hell.

Miftaah Daar al-Sa’aadah, 2/230, 231.

And Allaah knows best.

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PostSubject: Re: (Taqdir) Destiny and Fate (All Fatwas on Human being life)   Sun Jan 20, 2008 1:56 pm

Ruling on citing al-qadar (divine will and decree) as an excuse for committing sin or failing to do obligatory duties

Question:
Is it correct for a sinner to excuse his falling into sin by saying that this is what Allaah has decreed for him?.


Answer:
Praise be to Allaah.

Some sinners and some who fall short (in religious commitment) make excuses for their shortcomings and sins by saying that Allaah is the One Who has decreed this for them, so they should not be blamed for it.

What they say is not correct under any circumstances. There can be no doubt that belief in al-qadar is no excuse for failing to do obligatory duties or committing sins, according to the consensus of the Muslims and all those who are wise.

Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: “No one has the right to make excuses for sin by referring to al-qadar, according to the consensus of the Muslims and the followers of other religions, and all those who are wise. If this were acceptable, then anyone could do whatever crosses his mind of murder, seizing people’s wealth and any kind of spreading mischief in the land, and quote al-qadar as his excuse. If a person who quotes al-qadar as an excuse were attacked by
another person who also quoted al-qadar as an excuse for that, he would not accept that, and thus he would contradict himself, which in itself is proof that that this logic is false. So using al-qadar as an excuse is cleared
flawed, as is obvious to anyone who has any common sense. Majmoo’ al-Fataawa, 8/179.


Both the texts of sharee’ah and common sense indicate that it is invalid to give al-qadar as an excuse for committing sin or not doing obligatory actions.

The evidence of sharee’ah includes the following:

1 – The verse in which Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“Those who took partners (in worship) with Allaah will say: ‘If Allaah had willed, we would not have taken partners (in worship) with Him, nor would our fathers, and we would not have forbidden anything (against His Will).’ Likewise belied those who were before them, (they argued falsely with Allaah’s Messengers), till they tasted Our Wrath. Say: ‘Have you any knowledge (proof) that you can produce before us? Verily, you follow nothing but guess and you do nothing but lie’”
[al-An’aam 6:148]

These mushrikoon quoted al-qadar as an excuse for their shirk, but if their excuse had been valid Allaah would not have caused them to taste His Wrath. Whoever gives al-qadar as an excuse for sin and shameful behaviour might as well justify the ways of the kuffaar and attribute injustice to Allaah as well – exalted be Allaah far above that.

2 – Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“Messengers as bearers of good news as well as of warning in order that mankind should have no plea against Allaah after the (coming of) Messengers. And Allaah is Ever All-Powerful, All-Wise”
[al-Nisa’ 4:40]

If al-qadar were an acceptable excuse for committing sin, definitive proof would not have been established by the sending of the Messengers, and indeed there would have been no point in sending the Messengers.

3 –Allaah issues commands and prohibitions to His slaves, but He does not burden them with more than they can bear:

“So keep your duty to Allaah and fear Him as much as you can”
[al-Taghaabun 64:16]

“Allaah burdens not a person beyond his scope”
[al-Baqarah 2:286]

If a person were forced to do things, he would be obliged to do things over which he had no control and this is not right. Hence whatever wrongs he commits due to ignorance or being compelled to do them, there is no sin on him for that, because he has an excuse. If this excuse (of al-qadar) were valid, then there would be no difference between one who is forced to do something, one who is ignorant and one who does it deliberately. But what is in fact known from real life and basic common sense, is that there is a great difference between them.

4 – Al-qadar is something secret and concealed which no one in creation knows until it has come to pass. When a person does something, his will precedes his action, so his will to do it is not based on knowledge of the decree of Allaah. So his claim that Allaah has decreed that he should do such and such is a false claim, because it is a claim to have knowledge of the unseen, but no one knows the unseen except Allaah. So this argument is flawed, because no man can base his evidence on something of which he
knows nothing.


5 – Quoting al-qadar as an excuse for sin implies that the laws of Allaah are pointless and that the reckoning, resurrection, and reward and punishment will not happen.

6 – If al-qadar were a valid excuse for sin, the people of Hell would have used it, when they see the punishment and realize that they are going to fall into it and when the angels start to rebuke them. But in fact they do not use it as an excuse, rather they say – as Allaah tells us (interpretation of the meaning) –

“ ‘Our Lord! Respite us for a little while, we will answer Your Call and follow the Messengers!’”
[Ibraaheem 14:44]

“ ‘Our Lord! Our wretchedness overcame us’”
[al-Mu’minoon 23:106]

“ ‘Had we but listened or used our intelligence, we would not have been among the dwellers of the blazing Fire!’”
[al-Mulk 67:10]

“We were not of those who used to offer the Salaah (prayers)”
[al-Muddaththir 74:43]
etc.

If al-qadar were a justifiable excuse for sin, they would use it, for they are in the most desperate need of an excuse that would save them from the Fire of Hell.

7 – If al-qadar were a valid excuse for sin, it would have been an excuse for Iblees who said:

“ ‘Because You have sent me astray, surely, I will sit in wait against them (human beings) on Your straight path’”

[al-A’raaf 7:16 – interpretation of the meaning]

And Pharaoh the enemy of Allaah would have been equal with
Moosa, the one with whom Allaah spoke.


8 – Another point that refutes this argument and demonstrates
it to be invalid, is the fact that we see how people are keen to get what benefits them in this world. You never see anyone who ignores worldly things that are good for him and doing things that harm him on the grounds that this is what Allaah has decreed. Why would anyone turn away from that which will benefit him in spiritual terms and turn to that which will harm him, and then claim that this is what Allaah has decreed for him?


I will give some examples which will clarify that for you: if a person wants to travel to some country, and there are two routes to this country, one of which is safe and secure, and the other is remote and dangerous, with the risk of murder and robbery, which route will he take?

Undoubtedly he will take the first route. So why, with regard to the Hereafter, does he not take the road to Paradise and avoid the road to Hell?

9 – Another point that may be used to refute the one who quotes al-qadar as evidence, is to follow his own line of reasoning and tell him: “Do not get married, and if Allaah has decreed that you should have a son, you will have one, otherwise you will never have a child. Do not eat or drink, and if Allaah has decreed that you should be satisfied, that will happen, otherwise it will never happen. If a wild animal attacks you, do not run away from it, and if Allaah has decreed that you should be saved, then you will be, and if He has not decreed that you will be saved, running away will not help you. If you fall sick, do not seek treatment, and if Allaah has decreed that you will recover then you will do so, but if He has not then medicine will never help you.”

Will he agree with such comments or not? If he agrees with us, then we will know that his reasoning is not sound. If he disagrees with us, we will know that what he says and the excuses he gives are not valid.

10 – The one who quotes al-qadar as an excuse for sin is likening himself to the insane and minors, who are not accountable and will not be taken to task, but if he were to be treated as they are in this world he would not accept that.

11- If we accept this excuse, there would be no need to pray for forgiveness, or repent, or make du’aa’, or strive in jihad, or enjoin what is good and forbid what is evil.

12 – If al-qadar were an excuse for shameful behaviour and sin, then there would be anarchy and chaos. There would be no need for hudood and ta’zeer punishments, or other types of penalties, because the
wrongdoer would be able to quote al-qadar as an excuse and we would not need to punish wrongdoers and bandits or to have courts and a judiciary system, because everything that happens happens only by the decree of Allaah. But no wise man would say such a thing.


13 – The one who gives al-qadar as an excuse says: We will not be taken to task, because Allaah has decreed this for us, and how can we be taken to task for something that has been decreed for us?

We say to him: We will not be taken to task for that which has already been decreed for us, but we will be taken to task for what we do and earn. We are not commanded to do that which Allaah has decreed for us, rather we are commanded to do that which is enjoined upon us. There is a difference between what Allaah wills for us and what He wants from us. What He wills for us He has kept secret, but what He wants from us He has commanded us to do.


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PostSubject: Re: (Taqdir) Destiny and Fate (All Fatwas on Human being life)   Sun Jan 20, 2008 1:59 pm

The fact that Allaah knows what we will do from eternity and has written that down is not an excuse, because His all-encompassing knowledge means that He knows what His creation will do, but that does not imply any kind of compulsion. By way of example – and for Allaah is the highest description (cf al-Nahl 16:60) – if a teacher knows that one of his students will not make the grade this year because he is too careless and lazy, then this student fails just as the teacher knew he would, would any wise person say that the teacher forced him to fail, or would the student have any right to say “I did not succeed because this teacher knew that I would never succeed”?!


In conclusion, quoting al-qadar as an excuse for committing sin or for not doing obligatory duties is a false excuse, according to sharee’ah, common sense and reality.

It is worth pointing out that many of those who use this excuse do not do so out of conviction and faith, rather they base their argument on whims and desires and stubbornness. Hence one of the scholars said to one such person: “When it comes to obedience you are a Qadari and when it comes to sin you are a Jabari; whatever school of thought suits your whims and desires, you follow it.” (Majmoo’ al-Fataawa, 8/107). In other words, when he did an act of worship or obedience he attributed it to himself and denied that Allaah had decreed that, but when he committed a sin he quoted al-qadar as an excuse.

Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allaah have mercy on him) said of those who quote al-qadar as an excuse: If these people persist in this belief they will be worse kaafirs than the Jews and Christians. (Majmoo’
al-Fataawa
, 8/262)


Based on this, there is no justification for a person to quote al-qadar as an excuse for his faults and sins.

Rather al-qadar may be invoked when calamities befall a person such as poverty and sickness, loss of a loved one, destruction of crops, loss of wealth, accidental killing, and so on. This is a sign of full acceptance of Allaah as one’s Lord. In this case referring to al-qadar is only valid when it has to do with calamities, not faults. The fortunate one is the one who seeks forgiveness for faults and is patient in the face of calamity, as Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“So be patient (O Muhammad). Verily, the Promise of Allaah is true, and ask forgiveness for your fault”
[Ghaafir 40:55]

The doomed one is the one who panics at the time of calamity and quotes al-qadar as an excuse for sin.

The following example will help to explain this further: if a man is speeding in his car and fails to drive safely and causes an accident, then he is blamed for that and called to account, and he gives al-qadar as an excuse, that excuse will not be accepted from him, whereas if a person’s car is struck whilst stationary, and another person blames him and he responds by refering to al-qadar, this will be acceptable, unless he was
parked in the wrong place.



The point is that whatever a person does and whatever choices he makes cannot be excused by referring to al-qadar, but whatever is beyond his will and control may correctly be attributed to al-qadar.


Hence Adam and Moosa (peace be upon them) disputed, as is described in the hadeeth of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) who said: “Adam and Moosa disputed. Moosa said to him: ‘You are Adam whose sin caused you to be expelled [?] from Paradise.’ Adam said to him: ‘You are Moosa whom Allaah chose to convey His message and to speak to; are you blaming me for something that Allaah decreed for me before I was created?’ So Adam won the argument with Moosa.”
Narrated by Muslim, 2652.

Adam (peace be upon him) did not quote al-qadar as an excuse for his sin as may be imagined by those who do not think about the meaning of the hadeeth, and Moosa (peace be upon him) did not blame Adam for his sin, because he knew that Adam had asked his Lord for forgiveness and repented, and his Lord had accepted his repentance and guided him, and the one who repents from sin like one who did not sin.

If Moosa had blamed Adam for his sin, he would have replied: “I sinned but then I repented, and Allaah accepted my repentance,” or he
would have said: “You, O Moosa, also killed a soul, and you threw down the Tablets,” and so on. Rather Moosa referred to the calamity and Adam responded by referring to al-qadar. See al-Ihtijaaj bi’l-Qadar by Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah, 18-22.


Whatever calamities are divinely decreed, we must accept them, for that is part of full acceptance of Allaah as one’s Lord. With regard to sins, no one has the right to sin; if he does commit sin then he has to seek forgiveness and repent, so he should repent from sin and be patient in the face of calamity.” Sharh al-Tahhaawiyyah, 147.

Note: Some of the scholars said that one of those who are justified in referring to al-qadar as an excuse is the one who repents from sin, so if anyone blames him for a sin from which he has repented, he may refer to al-qadar in this case.

If it is said to one who has repented: “Why did you do such and such?” and he responds by saying, “That happened by the will and decree of Allaah, but I have repented and asked forgiveness,” this excuse is acceptable in his case, because in his case the sin is like a calamity that befell him, and he did not quote al-qadar as an excuse for his negligence, rather he is referring to the calamity that befell him, which is disobedience towards Allaah. Undoubtedly sin is a kind of calamity, and he is referring to al-qadar after the sin took place, and he is admitting his sin. So no one has the right to condemn the one who has repented from sin. What matters is how a person ends up, not the shortcomings that he may commit in the beginning.

And Allaah knows best.
See A’laam al-Sunnah al-Manshoorah,
147; al-Qada’ wa’l-Qadar fi Daw’ il-Kitaab wa’l-Sunnah by Shaykh Dr. ‘Abd al-Rahmaan al-Mahmoud; al-Eemaan bi’l-Qada’ wa’l-Qadar by Shaykh Muhammad al-Hamd; and the summary by al-Shaykh Sulaymaan al-Khuraashi of the belief of Ahl al-Sunnah in al-Qadar as discussed in his book Turki’l-Hamd fi Meezaan Ahl al-Sunnah.


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PostSubject: Re: (Taqdir) Destiny and Fate (All Fatwas on Human being life)   Sun Jan 20, 2008 3:12 pm

Belief of Ahl al-Sunnah concerning al-Qada’ wa’l-Qadar (Divine Will and Decree)

Question:
Could you explain to me the Islamic view of the Divine Will and Decree (al-qada’ wa’l-qadar)? What should I believe with regard to this topic?.


Answer:
Praise be to Allaah.


Praise be to Allaah and blessings and peace be upon the Messenger of Allaah.

We could talk at length about the Islamic view of the Divine will and decree but to make the subject easier to understand, we will start with an overview of this topic, then explain as much as space permits, asking Allaah to benefit us thereby and to accept our efforts.

Note that what is meant by belief in al-qada’ (the Divine will) is: certain belief that everything that happens in this universe happens by the will and decree of Allaah.

Belief in al-qadar (the Divine decree) is the sixth pillar of faith, and no one’s faith is complete without it. In Saheeh Muslim ( it is narrated that Ibn ‘Umar (may Allaah be pleased with him) heard that some people were denying al-qadar. He said: “If I meet these people I will tell them that I have nothing to do with them and they have nothing to do with me. By the One by Whom ‘Abd-Allaah ibn ‘Umar swore, if one of them had gold equivalent to Mount Uhud and he spent it, Allaah would not accept it from him unless he believed in al-qadar.”

You should also note that belief in al-qadar is not valid unless you believe in the four aspects of al-qadar, which are as follows:

1 – Belief that Allaah knows all things, in general terms and in detail, from eternity to eternity. Not a single atom is unknown to Him in the heavens or on earth.

2 – Belief that Allaah has decreed all things in al-Lawh al-Mahfooz, fifty thousand years before He created the heavens and the earth.

3 – Belief that the will of Allaah is irresistable and His decree is comprehensive, so nothing happens in this universe, good or bad, but by His will.

4 – Belief that all that exists was created by Allaah. He is the Creator of all beings and the Creator of their attributes and actions, as He says (interpretation of the meaning):

“Such is Allaah, your Lord! Laa Ilaaha illa Huwa (none has the right to be worshipped but He), the Creator of all things”
[al-An’aam 6:102]

Correct belief in al-qadar also involves believing in the following:

That the individual has free will by means of which he acts, as Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“To whomsoever among you who wills to walk straight”
[al-Takweer 81:28]

“Allaah burdens not a person beyond his scope”
[al-Baqarah 2:286]

That a person’s will and ability do not operate outside the will and decree of Allaah, Who is the One Who has given him that ability and made him able to distinguish (between good and evil) and make his choice, as He says (interpretation of the meaning):

“And you cannot will unless (it be) that Allaah wills the Lord of the ‘Aalameen (mankind, jinn and all that exists)”
[al-Takweer 81:29]

That al-qadar is Allaah’s plan for His creation. What He has shown us of it, we know and believe in, and what He has hidden from us, we accept and believe in. We do not dispute with Allaah concerning His actions and rulings with our limited minds and comprehension, rather we believe in Allaah’s complete justice and wisdom, and that He is not to be asked about what He does, may He be glorified and praised.

This is a summary of the belief of the first generations concerning this important topic. We will discuss some of this in more detail below, asking Allaah to help us to say the right thing:

1 – The meaning of al-qada’ wa’l-qadar in Arabic:
The word qada’ means perfection and completion, and the word qadar means evaluating and planning.

2 – Definition of al-qada’ wa’l-qadar in Islamic terminology:

Qadar means Allaah’s decree of all things from eternity, and His knowledge that they will come to pass at the times that are known to Him and in the specific manner that He has decreed and willed. They will happen the way they are meant to and the way they are created.

3 – Is there a difference between al-qada’ and al-qadar?

Some of the scholars said that there was a difference between them, but perhaps the most correct view is that there is no difference in meaning between al-qada’ and al-qadar, and that each of them points to the meaning of the other. There is no clear evidence in the Qur’aan or Sunnah to indicate that there is a difference between them. The scholars are agreed that the one may be applied to the other, but it should be noted that the word qadar is most usually used in the texts of the Qur’aan and Sunnah, which indicates that we must believe in this pillar. And Allaah knows best.

4 – The status of belief in al-qadar in Islam:

Belief in al-qadar is one of the six pillars of faith which were mentioned in the words of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) when Jibreel (peace be upon him) asked him about faith (eemaan). He said: “(It is) to believe in Allaah, His angels, His Books, His Messengers, the Last Day, and to believe in the Divine will and decree (al-qadar) both good and bad.” Narrated by Muslim, 8. Al-qadar is also mentioned in the Qur’aan, where Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“Verily, We have created all things with Qadar (Divine Preordainments of all things before their creation as written in the Book of Decrees
[size=16] Al-Lawh Al-Mahfooz)”
[al-Qamar 54:49]
[/size]

[size=16]“And the Command of Allaah is a decree determined [qadran maqdooran]”[/size]
[size=16][al-Ahzaab 33:38][/size]


5 – Aspects of belief in al-qadar:

[size=16]Note, may Allaah help you to do that which pleases Him, that belief in al-qadar cannot be complete until you believe in the following four aspects of this doctrine: [/size]
[size=16](a)
Knowledge: this is the belief that the knowledge of Allaah encompasses all things and not a single atom in the heavens or on earth falls outside of His knowledge. Allaah knew all of His creation before He created them. He knew what they would do by means of His ancient and eternal knowledge. There is a great deal of evidence that points to this such as the verses in which Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
[/size]

[size=16]“He is Allaah, beside Whom Laa ilaaha illa Huwa (none has the right to be worshipped but He) the All-Knower of the unseen and the seen. He is the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful”[/size]
[size=16][al-Hashr 59:22][/size]

[size=16]“and that Allaah surrounds all things in (His) Knowledge”[/size]
[size=16][al-Talaaq 65:12] [/size]

Writing: this is the belief that Allaah has written the decrees concerning all created beings in al-Lawh al-Mahfooz. The evidence for that is the verse in which He says (interpretation of the meaning):

“Know you not that Allaah knows all that is in the heaven and on the earth? Verily, it is (all) in the Book (al-Lawh al-Mahfooz). Verily, that is easy for Allaah”

[al-Hajj 22:16]And the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Allaah wrote the decrees concerning all created beings fifty thousand years before He created the heavens and the earth.” Narrated by Muslim, 2653.

Will: this is the belief that everything that happens in this universe happens by the will of Allaah.
Whatever Allaah wills happens and whatever He does not will does not happen. Nothing exists outside of His will. The evidence for that is in the verses where Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
[/size][/size]

“And never say of anything, ‘I shall do such and such thing tomorrow.’

24. Except (with the saying), ‘If Allaah wills!’”
[al-Kahf 18:23, 24]


“And you cannot will unless (it be) that Allaah wills the Lord of the ‘Aalameen (mankind, jinn and all that exists)”
[al-Takweer 81:29]

Creation: this is the belief that Allaah is the Creator of all things, including people’s actions. Nothing happens in this universe but He is its Creator, because He says (interpretation of the meaning):

“Allaah is the Creator of all things”
[al-Zumar 39:62]

“While Allaah has created you and what you make”

[al-Saaffaat 37:96]

And the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Allaah has made every doer and what he does.” Narrated by al-Bukhaari in Khalq Af’aal al-‘Ibaad (25) and by Ibn Abi ‘Aasim in al-Sunnah (257 and 358); classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in al-Saheehah, 1637.

Shaykh Ibn Sa’di (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: Just as
Allaah is the One Who created them – meaning people – He has also created that by means of which they act, namely their abilities and will, then they do various actions of obedience and sin, by the abilities and will which Allaah has created. (al-Durrah al-Bahiyyah Sharh al-Qaseedah al-Taa’iyyah, p. 1.

Warning against arguing about issues of al-qadar on the basis of (human) reasoning:
Belief in al-qadar is the real test of the extent of a person’s belief in Allaah. It is the true test of how much a person really knows about his Lord and what results from this knowledge of certain and sincere faith in Allaah, and His attributes of majesty and perfection. That is because al-qadar raises many questions for the one who gives free rein to his reasoning to try to fully comprehend it. There have been many disputes concerning the issue of al-qadar and many people have engaged in debates and misinterpreted the verses of the Qur’aan that mention it. Indeed, the
enemies of Islam in all eras have provoked confusion in the Muslims’ beliefs
by discussing the issue of al-qadar and stirring up doubts about it. So no
one can have true and certain faith except the one who knows Allaah by His beautiful names and sublime attributes, submitting to His commands with peace of mind and trusting in his Lord. In that case no doubts or specious arguments can find a way into his heart. Undoubtedly this is the greatest proof that belief in al-qadar is more important than belief in the other pillars of faith, and that the human mind cannot independently come to understand al-qadar, because al-qadar is one of the mysteries of Allaah in His creation; whatever Allaah has disclosed to us in His Book or on the lips of His Messenger (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) we know, accept and believe in, and whatever our Lord has not told us, we believe in
and we believe in His perfect justice and wisdom, and that He is not to be
questioned about what He does, but they will be questioned.


And Allaah knows best. May Allaah send blessings and peace upon His slave and Prophet Muhammad and upon his family and companions.
See: A’laam al-Sunnah al-Manshoorah, 147; al-Qada’ wa’l-Qadar fi Daw’ il-Kitaab wa’l-Sunnah by Shaykh Dr. ‘Abd al-Rahmaan al-Mahmoud; al-Eemaan bi’l-Qada’ wa’l-Qadar by Shaykh Muhammad al-Hamd.

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[/size]


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